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Mengapa alat kelamin terasa beku apabila jatuh bebas?

Mengapa alat kelamin terasa beku apabila jatuh bebas?


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Saya tidak mahu menambah lebih banyak perkara itu. Sejak kecil saya melihat kesan menggigil, walaupun ketika melakukan aktiviti jenis rollercoaster.


Mungkin kerana darah akan dipaksa, secara fizikal, iaitu, oleh inersia untuk bergerak ke atas semasa jatuh bebas, sekali gus menyebabkan bekalan darah alat kelamin menjadi tersumbat sekali gus mengurangkan suhunya dan dengan itu membawa kepada sensasi ia beku seperti yang anda nyatakan. Selain itu, anda mungkin berasa lebih sejuk di seluruh badan anda kerana aliran udara menentangnya dan kerana alat kelamin anda tidak akan digemari secara biologi apabila naluri kelangsungan hidup badan anda untuk persekitaran suhu rendah bermula di dalam badan anda mungkin akan mengurangkan aliran darah ke alat kelamin anda dan bahagian lain yang memihak kepada organ penting anda seperti jantung, paru-paru, otak, dan lain-lain dengan bekalan darah yang lebih besar untuk menjadikannya panas dan berfungsi.


Sebab saintifik mengapa orang menikmati 'pancuran emas' - dan mereka tidak semestinya 'sesat'

Donald Trump telah menyatakannya sebagai & aposPOLITIK WITCH HUNT & apos, tetapi laporan sensasi mengenai perbuatan & apos seksualnya yang didakwa & diubahsuai di sebuah hotel di Moscow telah mendorong kenaikannya ke Gedung Putih.

Daripada tuntutan yang tidak berasas itu, ia mungkin termasuk yang berkaitan dengan Presiden terpilih & yang mempunyai kecenderungan yang telah menarik imaginasi orang ramai.

& aposWatersportgate & apos, & aposPEETUS & apos dan & aposYa boleh & apos hanyalah beberapa ungkapan dan pembayang yang muncul sejak folder yang belum disahkan, ahem, dibocorkan.

Apa sahaja kebenaran di sebalik dokumen, & aposurophilia & apos (juga dikenali sebagai undinism, mandi emas dan sukan air) menjadi perhatian.

Pancuran air emas: Kelakuan sesat?

Urofilia, apabila seseorang terangsang secara seksual dengan melihat atau memikirkan air kencing, adalah sejenis parafilia yang - menanggung kita - minat seksual yang luar biasa.

Tanpa menghiraukan Trump & mengemukakan dorongan di sebalik keputusannya untuk mengatakan bahawa pelacur didakwa membuang air besar di bahagian sendi, dari sudut psikologi, urofilia bukanlah & quot; pembalikan & quot.

"Tiada apa-apa dalam kesusasteraan psikologi yang mencadangkan orang yang suka mandi emas mempunyai sebarang kekurangan," Dr Mark Griffiths memberitahu MirrorOnline.

Dr Griffiths, ahli psikologi bertauliah dan Profesor Ketagihan Tingkah Laku di Universiti Nottingham Trent, adalah pakar dalam bidang psikologi kesihatan dan sosial yang tidak normal dengan penekanan khusus pada ketagihan tingkah laku, termasuk paraphilias.

Dalam catatan blog bertajuk, " Urine demand: A beginner’s guide to urophilia " Dr Griffiths meneliti fetish ini sepenuhnya.

Soalan pertama anda mengenai urofilia mungkin, & quot; Kenapa? & Quot;

Wee adalah pembaziran dan sebarang keterikatan erotik pada tabiat bilik mandi nampaknya bertentangan dengan semua cara yang diajar untuk melihat dan merawat banyak fungsi badan kita.

Jadi apa yang dikeluarkan oleh urofilia?

Ternyata, masih banyak yang perlu dipelajari tentang motivasi urofiliac&aposs.

Apa yang dinyatakan oleh Dr Griffith & penyelidikan, & quot; Urophilia kemungkinan besar berkaitan dengan sadomasocism. & Quot

Dr Griffiths juga menunjukkan bagaimana, dalam jurnal perubatan tahun 1982, didapati & quoturine memenuhi banyak fungsi yang berbeza untuk urophiles.

Baca Lagi
Artikel berkaitan

Ini termasuk, & quot; berfungsi sebagai objek fetishistik, digunakan untuk mempermalukan atau dihina (iaitu, dengan kencing pada orang lain atau kencing), dan / atau menangkap semangat pasangan seksual. & Quot

Ia bukan sahaja tentang kencing, sama ada.

& quot; Urofilia biasanya memperoleh keseronokan seksual daripada membuang air kecil pada (dan / atau kencing oleh) orang lain, & quot; Dr Griffiths menulis.

& quot; Beberapa urofilia juga mungkin mandi dalam air kencing, menikmati bau orang dengan pakaian yang direndam dalam air kencing, dan / atau terlibat dalam urofagia (iaitu, minum air kencing). & quot

Biasanya lelaki adalah urofiliac. Sebenarnya, paraphilias cenderung lebih banyak berlaku pada lelaki, Dr Griffiths menjelaskan.

Ia bukan sahaja perbuatan itu sendiri yang mungkin merangsang seksual untuk urofilika.

& quot; Sebilangan urofilia juga mungkin mengalami gairah seksual kerana mempunyai pundi kencing penuh dan / atau merasa tertarik secara seksual kepada orang lain yang mempunyai pundi kencing penuh (& putus asa pundi kencing) atau membasahi diri mereka sendiri (iaitu & amp; basah atau apos atau membasahi tempat tidur). & quot

Penyelidikan diteruskan.

Tetapi satu perkara yang Dr Griffiths ingin tekankan ialah bagaimana, apabila ia berkaitan dengan parafilia, dengan beberapa contoh yang ketara (necrophilia, pedofilia antara lain), "tiada apa-apa yang tidak diingini tentang orang itu.

& quot; Sekiranya ia berlaku secara konsensual dan tidak melanggar had tertentu maka, secara moral, saya sama sekali tidak mempunyai masalah dengan itu. & quot


Rasa kebas: Apa yang anda perlu tahu

Ia bukan sesuatu yang luar biasa untuk berasa mati rasa secara emosi selepas atau semasa peristiwa yang sangat tertekan. Seseorang juga mungkin menyedari perasaan pemisahan atau pemutusan hubungan sementara dari badan dan dunia luar.

Mati rasa emosi boleh menjadi gejala tekanan yang teruk. Ini juga mungkin menunjukkan keadaan kesihatan mental yang lebih berterusan, seperti gangguan tekanan pasca-trauma (PTSD) atau gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi.

Orang yang mengalami gejala yang teruk, berterusan, atau berulang harus berusaha mendapatkan nasihat perubatan.

Dalam artikel ini, pelajari tentang bagaimana mengenali gejala kebas emosi dan apa yang harus dilakukan jika ia berlaku.

Kongsi di Gambar Kredit Pinterest: Klaus Vedfelt / Getty Images

Kebas emosi, juga dikenali sebagai afektif afektif, bermaksud seseorang tidak dapat mengalami emosi. Sebagai alternatif, mereka mungkin merasa seolah-olah terasing dari emosi mereka sendiri.

Beberapa tanda dan gejala yang mungkin dikaitkan dengan kebas emosi termasuk:

  • rasa terputus dari badan atau fikiran seseorang
  • merasa terlepas dari dunia luar
  • berasa seperti orang luar dalam kehidupan sendiri
  • rasa masa yang diputarbelitkan atau keliru
  • kesukaran untuk berhubung dengan orang lain
  • pengurangan keupayaan untuk merasakan, memproses dan bertindak balas terhadap emosi dan isyarat fizikal

Gangguan depersonalisasi-derealization

Mati rasa emosi boleh menjadi gejala gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi, yang pada gilirannya dapat menjadi gejala gangguan disosiatif lain.

Pada seseorang dengan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi, terdapat gangguan kesedaran diri yang berterusan.

Empat gejala utama gangguan depersonalisasi-derealization ialah:

  • perasaan tidak senonoh, seolah-olah seseorang itu terlepas atau terputus dari badan mereka sendiri
  • mati rasa emosi dan ketidakupayaan untuk mengalami emosi atau empati
  • kekurangan pemilikan apabila mengingat semula maklumat peribadi atau membayangkan sesuatu, yang dikenali sebagai ingatan subjektif anomali
  • derealisasi, atau perasaan bahawa persekitaran seseorang tidak nyata
  • seolah-olah mereka berada dalam kabut, mimpi, atau gelembung
  • robotik, atau seperti automaton
  • seolah-olah persekitaran mereka tidak bernyawa, tidak berwarna, atau buatan
  • gangguan penglihatan dan suara
  • kehilangan ingatan, atau terputus hubungan dari ingatan seseorang
  • rasa seolah-olah hidup dalam mimpi
  • rasa terputus dari orang lain

Seseorang juga boleh menunjukkan tingkah laku berikut:

  • tindak balas yang rendah terhadap isyarat emosi
  • kurang memahami situasi sosial
  • kesedaran emosi yang rendah

Pemisahan dan penghapusan deria berbeza dengan halusinasi kerana orang itu sedar bahawa apa yang mereka rasakan hanya mempengaruhi mereka.

Doktor tidak tahu dengan tepat apa yang menyebabkan kebas emosi dan terputus hubungan. Penyebabnya mungkin berbeza untuk kebas sementara berbanding dengan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi.

Beberapa punca kebas emosi sementara yang nampaknya tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealization termasuk:

  • penggunaan bahan seperti ganja, LSD, dan ketamin
  • panik atau serangan kecemasan yang melampau
  • kemurungan teruk
  • kebimbangan yang teruk
  • menerima berita tentang penyakit terminal

Penyelidik masih menyiasat bagaimana, mengapa, dan kapan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi berlaku, tetapi yang berikut mungkin memainkan peranan:

  • ciri genetik
  • faktor persekitaran
  • faktor biologi, seperti struktur otak dan bahan kimia otak

Mungkin ada kaitan antara gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi dan:

Ubat-ubatan

Beberapa ubat juga boleh mencetuskan mati rasa emosi.

Kajian 2014 mendapati bahawa 60% daripada lebih 1,800 orang dewasa yang telah mengambil antidepresan, termasuk perencat pengambilan semula serotonin terpilih (SSRI), dalam tempoh 5 tahun yang lalu telah mengalami kebas emosi.

Satu lagi kajian melihat 38 orang dengan gangguan bipolar yang mengambil SSRI untuk merawat kebimbangan atau kemurungan. Para peserta melaporkan pelbagai kesan, mulai dari "tidak peduli" hingga menyelesaikan kebas emosi.

Trauma, tekanan, dan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi

Sesetengah kajian mencadangkan bahawa kebas emosi mungkin berkembang sebagai sejenis mekanisme mengatasi apabila seseorang menghadapi tekanan yang melampau. Ini dapat membantu seseorang mengelakkan memproses maklumat yang mengejutkan atau menyusahkan.

Kajian selama 6 tahun dari 2016 mengikuti hampir 3,500 kanak-kanak yang terdedah kepada keganasan. Penulis mendapati bahawa golongan muda menjadi semakin tidak peka, atau kebas emosi, dari semasa ke semasa.

Faktor yang boleh menyebabkan kebas emosi merangkumi:

  • pendedahan kepada pengalaman traumatik
  • kesedihan
  • penderaan fizikal atau lain-lain
  • tekanan yang melampau
  • mengetahui tentang penyakit terminal

Sebilangan pakar menyatakan bahawa kebas emosi mungkin disebabkan oleh kekurangan sumber emosi setelah tempoh emosi yang tinggi, seperti tekanan.

Kebas emosi boleh membantu orang ramai mengatasi perasaan sukar, tetapi ia juga boleh menjejaskan keupayaan mereka untuk membuat keputusan dan berhubung dengan orang lain.

Menangani tekanan yang mendasari dan sebarang isu lain selalunya boleh membantu seseorang menguruskan gejala kebas.

Rawatan mungkin melibatkan membuat keputusan gaya hidup, mencuba psikoterapi, atau mengambil ubat. Bahagian berikut akan melihat setiap pilihan ini dengan lebih terperinci.

Perubahan gaya hidup

Strategi berikut dapat membantu menghilangkan tekanan yang menyebabkan kebas emosi sementara:

  • melakukan aktiviti fizikal secara berkala
  • mencuba senaman relaksasi
  • makan makanan yang sihat
  • mendapat tidur yang cukup
  • mengenal pasti pencetus dan mencari cara baru untuk mendekatinya
  • membincangkan perasaan dengan individu yang dipercayai dan meminta pertolongan apabila diperlukan
  • mencari rawatan untuk tekanan

Strategi ini juga dapat membantu dengan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi.

Psikoterapi

Jika membuat perubahan gaya hidup tidak membantu, doktor mungkin mengesyorkan mencuba kaunseling atau psikoterapi.

Sebagai contoh, terapi tingkah laku kognitif dapat membantu seseorang memahami bagaimana pemikiran dan perasaan mereka mempengaruhi tingkah laku mereka. Ini dapat membantu mereka belajar mendekati situasi dengan cara baru, yang dapat membantu mengurangkan kegelisahan.

Terdapat banyak jenis psikoterapi yang ada, dan pilihan terbaik bergantung pada keperluan individu. Seorang ahli terapi boleh mengesyorkan kaedah untuk merawat dan melegakan mati rasa dan gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi.

Ubat-ubatan

Tiada ubat khusus untuk merawat rasa kebas, tetapi mengambil ubat untuk merawat keadaan asas, seperti kemurungan, boleh membantu.

Dalam beberapa kasus, solusinya adalah dengan berhenti minum obat atau menukar ubat, jika obat itu sendiri memicu kesannya.

Doktor boleh menetapkan ubat jika:

  • simptomnya teruk
  • gejala mempunyai kesan yang besar terhadap kehidupan seharian seseorang untuk jangka masa yang panjang
  • seseorang mempunyai diagnosis PTSD, kemurungan, atau keadaan lain

Mati rasa emosi boleh berlaku akibat tekanan yang teruk, penggunaan beberapa ubat, atau keadaan seperti gangguan depersonalisasi-derealisasi.

Ia sering berlalu dengan masa, tetapi jika ia berterusan dan teruk, seseorang harus berjumpa doktor. Mereka mungkin memerlukan rawatan untuk keadaan yang mendasari.


Apa yang Berlaku Apabila Fikiran Saya Kosong?

Bagi kebanyakan orang, pengaburan minda adalah fenomena yang menjengkelkan yang sementara mengganggu kita daripada melakukan apa yang perlu diselesaikan. Mengapa ini berlaku?

Anatomi Kepala Kosong

Terdapat tiga kawasan utama otak yang terlibat ketika fikiran kita kosong: hipotalamus, hipokampus, dan korteks prefrontal (PFC).

  • Hipotalamus: Jambatan antara emosi yang kita anggap dan sensasi fizikal kita. Hipotalamus sangat dikaitkan dengan sistem endokrin kita dan hormon yang wujud di seluruh badan kita.
  • Hippocampus: Pusat emosi kita. Hippocampus memainkan peranan penting dalam pembelajaran dan pengambilan fakta.
  • Korteks Prefrontal: Mengawal aspek yang membezakan manusia dari haiwan lain termasuk merancang, membuat keputusan, kawalan impuls, dan interaksi sosial.

Kognisi Panas dan Sejuk

Semasa tugasan harian yang boleh diramalkan, otak kita terlibat dalam kognisi sejuk. Hipotalamus diperlahankan, dan kita dapat menikmati muzik atau belajar semasa tahap hormon stres kita rendah.

Sebaliknya, situasi berisiko dan tidak dapat diramalkan meletakkan kita dalam alam kognisi yang panas. Seseorang yang mesti memilih antara memenuhi tarikh akhir atau bergabung dengan rakan-rakan di pesta mungkin akan mengalami masalah. Akibat tekanan dan ancaman yang dirasakan, hipotalamus mengaktifkan tindak balas pertarungan atau penerbangan yang kemudiannya melepaskan kortisol dan hormon menarik lain ke dalam tubuh kita. Hormon ini menyerang PFC dan hippocampus, mengganggu aktiviti neuron dan corak otak normal kita. Akibatnya, kaedah kami untuk mendapatkan semula fakta dan kaedah memanggil semula terganggu.

Kognisi panas dikendalikan oleh hipotalamus (dan kawasan subkortikal lain). Cara penaakulan yang penuh dengan emosi ini mengatasi cara berfikir kognitif sejuk biasa yang dijalankan oleh korteks prefrontal.


Apakah identiti jantina?

Identiti jantina anda adalah bagaimana perasaan anda di dalam dan bagaimana anda meluahkan perasaan tersebut. Pakaian, penampilan, dan tingkah laku semuanya boleh menjadi cara untuk menyatakan identiti jantina anda.

Kebanyakan orang merasakan bahawa mereka sama ada lelaki atau perempuan. Sesetengah orang berasa seperti perempuan maskulin, atau lelaki feminin. Sebilangan orang tidak merasakan lelaki atau perempuan. Orang-orang ini boleh memilih label seperti "genderqueer", "varian gender" atau "cecair gender". Perasaan anda tentang identiti jantina anda bermula seawal umur 2 atau 3 tahun.


Bagaimana virus herpes menipu sistem imun

Dengan lebih separuh penduduk A.S. dijangkiti, kebanyakan orang sudah biasa dengan wabak sakit sejuk yang menjengkelkan yang disebabkan oleh virus herpes. Virus ini mengatasi sistem imun dengan mengganggu proses yang biasanya membolehkan sel-sel imun mengenali dan memusnahkan penyerang asing. Betapa tepatnya virus herpes simplex 1 menarik diri daripada skema bagusnya telah lama sukar difahami oleh saintis.

Kini penyelidikan baru dari The Rockefeller University memberi penerangan mengenai fenomena tersebut. Sepasukan ahli biologi struktur di Makmal Biologi dan Biofisik Jue Chen telah menangkap gambar atom virus dalam tindakan, menunjukkan bagaimana ia memasukkan dirinya ke dalam protein lain untuk menyebabkan kesesakan lalu lintas di jalan sistem imun yang penting. Penemuan ini diterbitkan dalam Alam semula jadi pada 20 Januari.

"Karya ini menggambarkan contoh yang mencolok tentang bagaimana virus yang berterusan menghindari sistem kekebalan tubuh," kata Chen. "Sebaik sahaja virus ini memasuki badan, ia tidak akan keluar. Penemuan kami memberikan penjelasan mekanistik tentang cara ia dapat melarikan diri dari pengesanan oleh sel imun."

Jambatan ke retikulum endoplasma disekat

Apabila virus masuk ke dalam tubuh, virus tersebut akan dikunyah di dalam sel, dan kepingan kecil akhirnya tersekat di bahagian luar sel. "Kepingan ini bertindak seperti kod bar kepada sel imun, yang merasakan bahawa patogen hadir, dan menyerang, " kata rakan penyelidikan kanan dan pengarang pertama kertas itu, Michael Oldham.

Satu bahagian daripada jentera yang terlibat dalam membawa bit virus ke permukaan sel ialah protein yang dipanggil TAP. Ini adalah pengangkut yang bertindak sebagai jambatan untuk menggerakkan kepingan virus ke membran retikulum endoplasma, struktur dalam sel yang mengemas bit virus. Dari sini mereka bergerak ke permukaan sel, mengingatkan sel-sel imun terhadap kehadiran virus.

"Kami tahu bahawa TAP terlibat dalam ketidakmampuan kami untuk mempunyai tindak balas imun yang berkesan terhadap virus ini, tetapi tidak ada yang benar-benar tahu seperti apa TAP, atau bagaimana ia berfungsi," kata Chen. "Penemuan kami menunjukkan dengan tepat bagaimana protein virus ini menyekat TAP, yang mempunyai dua kesan. Satu, ia menghalang protein biasa daripada mengikat. Dua, ia menjadikan pengangkut terperangkap dalam konformasi ini."

Terobosan mikroskop

Sangat sukar untuk menyiasat struktur protein yang tertanam dalam membran sel, seperti TAP, kerana sampelnya tidak stabil dan mudah hancur. Dalam kajian ini, para penyelidik menggunakan teknik yang dikenali sebagai mikroskopi cryo-electron, di mana protein yang disucikan dibekukan dalam lapisan ais yang nipis. Ini menstabilkan sampel, membolehkan para saintis mengambil data dan secara komputasi menentukan strukturnya.

Kegunaan cryo-EM sebelum ini dihadkan oleh ketidakupayaannya untuk menghasilkan struktur molekul terperinci, tetapi penemuan terbaru dalam teknologi pengesan kini membenarkan penangkapan maklumat struktur pada skala sepersepuluh nanometer. Melalui kolaborasi dengan Thomas Walz, ketua Makmal Mikroskop Elektron Molekul di Rockefeller, dan menggunakan alat cryo-EM yang canggih, pasukan Chen dapat menyelidiki struktur TAP dengan terperinci.

Virus sebagai guru

Terapi untuk mencegah kudis selsema bukanlah sesuatu yang akan muncul dalam masa terdekat, kerana kerumitan yang terlibat dalam mencipta ubat yang cukup khusus untuk hanya menjejaskan pengangkut tertentu. Mengganggu TAP atau alat pengangkutan lain yang tidak sengaja dengan cara yang tidak disengajakan akan mengganggu banyak proses selular dan menyebabkan kesan sampingan yang besar.

Namun, memahami pelbagai cara penyekat virus dapat digunakan untuk merawat penyakit lain. TAP adalah anggota keluarga pengangkut yang terdapat di sel manusia, sejumlah molekul mengepam seperti nutrien dan ubat merentasi membran ke pelbagai ruang selular. Pengangkut ini sering mengepam ubat kemoterapi dari ruang yang mereka perlukan, menjadikan ubat tidak berguna. Menghalang pengangkut ini untuk jangka masa yang singkat boleh membolehkan kemoterapi kekal di tempat yang diperlukan dan berfungsi dengan berkesan.

"Kami belum dapat mengetahui bagaimana untuk menyekat pengangkut ini sendiri," kata Chen, "jadi kami belajar bagaimana hal itu dilakukan dari virus, yang kami harap akan mengajar kami beberapa strategi pencegahan."


Zakar Perempuan, Faraj Lelaki: Kes Pembalikan Genital Pertama di Alam Dilaporkan

Wanita dengan alat kelamin seperti zakar dan lelaki dengan organ seperti faraj adalah kes pembalikan melampau baru peranan seks yang ditemui penyelidik dalam serangga gua yang kurang dikenali.

Ini adalah contoh pertama haiwan dengan alat kelamin yang membalikkan peranan seks tradisional, dan penemuan itu boleh menjelaskan konflik antara jantina dalam kerajaan haiwan, kata penyiasat.

Para saintis menganalisis empat spesies serangga dari gua yang sangat kering di Brazil. Keempat-empat spesies tergolong dalam genus Neotrogla, sama seperti anjing, serigala, coyote dan serigala milik genus Canis. Yang pertama Neotrogla ditemui 18 tahun yang lalu dewasa Neotrogla panjangnya sekitar 2.7 hingga 3.7 milimeter (0.11 hingga 0.15 inci). [Lihat Foto Serangga Gua Berbalik Genital]

Para penyelidik terkejut apabila mendapati bahawa betina spesies ini mempunyai alat kelamin seperti zakar yang digelar gynosomes, organ kompleks yang terdiri daripada otot, saluran, membran dan pancang. Sebaliknya, lelaki mempunyai phallosomes seperti vagina.

"Neotrogla spesies merupakan kes pertama di mana kemaluan terbalik, "kata penulis bersama kajian Rodrigo Ferreira, seorang ahli biologi gua di Universiti Persekutuan Lavras di Brazil.

Gynosom adalah "struktur baru dalam evolusi," kata penulis kajian utama Kazunori Yoshizawa, ahli entomologi di Universiti Hokkaido di Jepun. "Evolusi hal baru seperti ini sangat jarang terjadi, mungkin sebanding dengan asal sayap serangga."

Pada jarak sekitar 0,4 hingga 0,5 mm (0,016 hingga 0,02 inci), atau kira-kira sepertiga panjang serangga, organ seperti zakar besar berbanding dengan ukuran serangga. Itu setara dengan lelaki yang tingginya 5 kaki 9 inci (1,75 meter) dengan panjang zakar sekitar 9,8 inci (24,9 sentimeter). (Rata-rata ukuran zakar bagi lelaki Amerika ialah 5,6 inci atau 14,2 cm.)

Semasa persetubuhan, yang berlangsung selama 40 hingga 70 jam, betina memasukkan gynosomes mereka ke dalam organ lelaki. Organ wanita yang rumit mengumpulkan kapsul sperma dari lelaki. [7 Zakar Haiwan Paling Pelik]

Sekali di dalam jantan, bahagian membran gynosom betina mengembang, dan banyak duri pada organ menjangkiti kedua serangga itu bersama-sama. Wanita boleh memeluk lelaki dengan sangat erat & mdash dalam satu kejadian, ketika para saintis berusaha untuk melepaskan sepasang, perut lelaki itu dirobek dari seluruh badannya tanpa putus hubungan kelamin.

Evolusi pembalikan peranan seks

Biasanya, struktur biologi baru berkembang sebagai pengubahsuaian struktur sedia ada sebelum ini. Sebaliknya, tidak ada struktur biologi yang diketahui di tempat lain di kalangan betina di kerajaan binatang yang serupa dengan ginekom, kata Yoshizawa.

Para penyelidik mengesyaki pembalikan peranan seks yang pelik ini disebabkan oleh banyaknya air mani berkhasiat yang disertakan oleh lelaki di dalam kapsul sperma mereka sebagai hadiah perkahwinan untuk pasangan mereka. Gua tempat serangga ini hidup adalah miskin sumber, menjadikannya berfaedah untuk betina mengawan lebih kerap.

"Kemungkinan besar wanita itu Neotrogla dapat secara paksa memahami dan bergaul dengan lelaki yang enggan, "kata Yoshizawa kepada Live Science." Pada haiwan, kawin paksa secara umum merupakan ciri eksklusif lelaki. "

Masa yang lama dihabiskan untuk berpasangan juga mungkin disebabkan oleh sifat gua yang keras.

"Perkawinan yang lebih lama boleh membolehkan jumlah air mani yang lebih tinggi dipindahkan, " kata Ferreira kepada Live Science.

Peranan seks kadangkala diterbalikkan dalam alam haiwan. Sebagai contoh, kuda laut jantan biasanya membesarkan anak dalam kantung merenung. Dan bagi sesetengah hama, alat kelamin wanita adalah tiub panjang yang digunakan untuk menerima sperma. Walau bagaimanapun, alat kelamin tungau ini tidak mempunyai jangkar yang dilihat pada ginekom, jadi mereka tidak boleh digunakan untuk memaksa seks sebagai Neotrogla buat.

Penyelidikan masa depan dapat menyelidiki kehidupan seks yang unik dari serangga gua ini untuk meneroka idea mengenai konflik antara jantina di kerajaan haiwan. Satu soalan yang menarik berkaitan dengan bagaimana lelaki Neotrogla berurusan dengan seks paksaan.

Dalam spesies lain, apabila betina dipaksa untuk melakukan hubungan seks, mereka boleh membuang sperma daripada lelaki yang tidak mereka suka, atau mencari sperma daripada lelaki yang mereka suka, "tetapi pilihan ini tidak tersedia untuk lelaki. Neotrogla, kerana jantan tidak menerima telur daripada betina," kata Yoshizawa. "Bagaimanakah jantan bertindak balas terhadap kawin paksa oleh betina?" tanya Yoshizawa.

Penyelidik belum mempunyai bukti langsung untuk menjawab soalan ini. Namun, mereka membuat spekulasi bahawa lelaki Neotrogla mungkin mengawal betapa berkhasiatnya hadiah perkahwinan mereka bergantung pada kualiti pasangan mereka.

Banyak gua yang tersisa untuk diterokai

Penemuan aneh ini dapat menjadi yang pertama dari gua Brazil. Dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, saintis telah menemui berpuluh-puluh spesies baru di gua-gua ini.

"Ini menunjukkan potensi besar yang dimiliki Brasil mengenai fauna gua," kata Ferreira. "Brazil mungkin mempunyai lebih daripada 150,000 gua."

Walau bagaimanapun, fauna gua Brazil mungkin terancam serius.

"Undang-undang Brazil mengenai perlindungan gua telah berubah sejak beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini dan kini gua, yang dahulunya dilindungi, berada dalam risiko," kata Ferreira. "Banyak spesies baru, beberapa di antaranya dapat membawa kemajuan besar bagi sains & mdash biologi, evolusi atau bahkan minat bioteknologi & mdash terancam. Banyak spesies berisiko pupus bahkan sebelum ditemui."

Para saintis memperincikan penemuan mereka pada 17 April dalam jurnal Current Biology.


Kandungan

Kuda laut kebanyakannya terdapat di air garam tropika dan sederhana yang cetek di seluruh dunia, dari sekitar 45 ° S hingga 45 ° N. [7] Mereka tinggal di kawasan terlindung seperti tempat tidur rumput laut, muara, terumbu karang, dan bakau. Empat spesies ditemui di perairan Pasifik dari Amerika Utara hingga Amerika Selatan. Di Atlantik, Hippocampus erectus berkisar dari Nova Scotia hingga Uruguay. H. zosterae, dikenali sebagai kuda laut kerdil, terdapat di Bahama.

Koloni telah ditemui di perairan Eropah seperti Muara Thames. [8]

Tiga spesies hidup di Laut Mediterranean: H. guttulatus (kuda laut panjang) H. hippocampus (kuda laut pendek), dan H. fuscus (kuda laut). Spesies ini membentuk wilayah jantan tinggal dalam lingkungan 1 m 2 (10 kaki persegi) habitat, manakala betina berkisar lebih kurang seratus kali ganda.

Kuda laut berukuran dari 1.5 hingga 35.5 cm (5 ⁄ 8 hingga 14 in). [9] Mereka dinamakan kerana rupa kuda mereka, dengan leher bengkok dan kepala muncung panjang serta batang dan ekor yang tersendiri. Walaupun mereka adalah ikan bertulang, mereka tidak mempunyai sisik, tetapi kulitnya agak nipis diregangkan di atas serangkaian piring bertulang, yang disusun dalam bentuk cincin di seluruh badan mereka. Setiap spesies mempunyai bilangan cincin yang berbeza. [10] Perisai plat tulang juga melindunginya daripada pemangsa, [11] dan kerana rangka luar ini, mereka tidak lagi mempunyai tulang rusuk. [12] Kuda laut berenang tegak, mendorong diri menggunakan sirip punggung, ciri lain yang tidak dikongsi oleh saudara terdekat mereka yang berenang secara mendatar. Razorfish adalah satu-satunya ikan lain yang berenang secara menegak. Sirip dada, yang terletak di kedua sisi kepala di belakang mata mereka, digunakan untuk stereng. Mereka kekurangan sirip ekor khas ikan. Ekor prehensil mereka terdiri daripada cincin berbentuk persegi yang hanya dapat dibuka kuncinya dalam keadaan yang paling melampau. [13] Mereka mahir dalam penyamaran, dan dapat tumbuh dan menyerap kembali pelekat berduri bergantung pada habitatnya. [14]

Tidak biasa di antara ikan, seekor kuda laut mempunyai leher yang fleksibel dan jelas. Ia juga memaparkan tulang belakang atau tanduk seperti mahkota di atas kepalanya, dipanggil "koronet", yang berbeza untuk setiap spesies. [15]

Kuda laut berenang dengan sangat buruk, dengan cepat menggerakkan sirip punggung dan menggunakan sirip dada untuk mengemudi. Ikan yang paling lambat bergerak di dunia adalah H. zosterae (kuda laut kerdil), dengan kelajuan tertinggi kira-kira 1.5 m (5 kaki) sejam. [16] Oleh kerana mereka adalah perenang yang lemah, kemungkinan besar mereka dijumpai sedang berehat dengan luka ekor prehensil mereka di sekitar objek pegun. Mereka memiliki moncong panjang, yang mereka gunakan untuk menyedut makanan, dan mata mereka dapat bergerak secara bebas antara satu sama lain seperti bunglon. [17]

Bukti anatomi, disokong oleh bukti molekul, fizikal dan genetik, menunjukkan bahawa kuda laut adalah ikan paip yang sangat diubah suai. Walau bagaimanapun, catatan fosil kuda laut sangat jarang. Fosil yang paling terkenal dan paling banyak dikaji adalah spesimen dari Hippocampus guttulatus (walaupun sastera lebih kerap merujuk kepada mereka di bawah sinonim H. ramulosus), daripada pembentukan Sungai Marecchia di Wilayah Rimini, Itali, sejak zaman Pliosen Bawah, kira-kira 3 juta tahun dahulu. Fosil kuda laut yang paling awal diketahui adalah daripada dua spesies seperti ikan paip, H. sarmaticus dan H. slovenicus, dari cakrawala koprolitik Tunjice Hills, sebuah lagerstätte Miosen tengah di Slovenia sejak sekitar 13 juta tahun. [18] Penemuan molekul mendapati bahawa pipefish dan kuda laut menyimpang semasa Oligosen Akhir. Hal ini menyebabkan spekulasi bahawa kuda laut berkembang sebagai tindak balas terhadap kawasan perairan cetek yang besar, yang baru dibuat sebagai hasil kejadian tektonik. Air cetek akan memungkinkan pengembangan habitat rumput laut yang berfungsi sebagai penyamaran untuk postur tegak kuda laut. [19] Perubahan tektonik ini terjadi di Samudera Pasifik barat, menunjuk ke asal di sana, dengan data molekul menunjukkan dua pencerobohan terpisah di Lautan Atlantik kemudian. [20] Pada tahun 2016, sebuah kajian yang diterbitkan di Alam semula jadi mendapati genom kuda laut adalah genom ikan yang paling pesat berkembang yang dikaji setakat ini. [21]

Kuda laut lelaki dilengkapi dengan kantung di bahagian ekor ventral, atau menghadap ke depan. Apabila mengawan, kuda laut betina menyimpan sehingga 1,500 telur dalam kantung jantan. Jantan membawa telur selama 9 hingga 45 hari sehingga kuda laut muncul sepenuhnya, tetapi sangat kecil. Anak muda kemudian dilepaskan ke dalam air, dan jantan sering mengawan semula dalam beberapa jam atau hari semasa musim pembiakan. [22]

Pacaran

Sebelum membiak, kuda laut boleh membuat pengadilan selama beberapa hari. Para saintis percaya bahawa tingkah laku pacaran menyelaraskan pergerakan dan keadaan pembiakan haiwan, sehingga jantan dapat menerima telur ketika betina siap untuk menyimpannya. Selama ini, mereka mungkin berubah warna, berenang berdampingan dengan memegang ekor atau mencengkeram helai rumput laut yang sama dengan ekornya, dan berputar bersama-sama dalam apa yang dikenal sebagai "tarian subuh". Mereka akhirnya terlibat dalam "tarian pacaran sejati" yang berlangsung sekitar 8 jam, di mana lelaki itu mengepam air melalui kantung telur di batangnya yang mengembang dan terbuka untuk menunjukkan kekosongannya. Apabila telur betina mencapai kematangan, dia dan pasangannya melepaskan mana-mana sauh dan hanyut ke atas muncung-ke-muncung, keluar dari rumput laut, sering berpusing semasa ia naik. Mereka berinteraksi selama kira-kira 6 minit, mengingatkan pacaran. Betina kemudian berenang sehingga keesokan paginya, dan jantan kembali menyedut makanan melalui muncungnya. [23] Perempuan memasukkan ovipositornya ke dalam kantung brood lelaki dan menyimpan puluhan hingga ribuan telur. Semasa betina melepaskan telurnya, tubuhnya menjadi langsing sambil membengkak. Kedua-dua haiwan kemudian tenggelam semula ke dalam rumput laut dan dia berenang pergi. [24]

Fasa pacaran

Kuda laut mempamerkan empat fasa pacaran yang ditunjukkan oleh perubahan tingkah laku yang jelas dan perubahan dalam intensiti perbuatan pacaran. Fasa 1, fasa pacaran awal, biasanya berlaku pada awal pagi satu atau dua hari sebelum persaingan fizikal. Selama fasa ini, pasangan yang berpotensi cerah dalam warna, bergetar, dan memaparkan getaran badan dari sisi ke sisi yang cepat. Pertunjukan ini dilakukan secara bergilir-gilir oleh kedua-dua kuda laut jantan dan betina. Fasa berikut, 2 hingga 4, berlaku secara berurutan pada hari persetubuhan. Fasa 2 ditandakan oleh wanita menunjuk, tingkah laku di mana wanita akan mengangkat kepalanya untuk membentuk sudut serong dengan badannya. Pada fasa 3 lelaki juga akan memulakan tingkah laku menunjuk yang sama sebagai tindak balas terhadap wanita. Akhirnya, lelaki dan wanita berulang kali akan naik ke atas bersama-sama di lajur air dan berakhir pada pertengahan air, di mana betina akan memindahkan telurnya terus ke kantung brood lelaki. [25]

Fasa 1: Persahabatan awal

Perilaku pacaran awal ini berlaku kira-kira 30 minit selepas subuh pada setiap hari pacaran, hingga hari persandingan. Selama fasa ini, lelaki dan wanita akan berjauhan pada malam hari, tetapi setelah subuh mereka akan bersatu dalam posisi berdampingan, mencerahkan, dan melakukan tingkah laku pacaran selama sekitar 2 hingga 38 minit. Terdapat gegaran berulang. Ini bermula apabila jantan mendekati betina, cerah dan mula menggigil. Wanita akan mengikuti lelaki dengan paparannya sendiri, di mana dia juga akan mencerahkan dan gemetar sekitar 5 saat kemudian. Apabila jantan menggigil, dia akan memusingkan badannya ke arah betina yang kemudiannya akan memusingkan badannya. Semasa fasa 1, ekor kedua-dua kuda laut diletakkan dalam jarak 1 cm antara satu sama lain pada pegangan yang sama dan kedua-dua badan mereka condong sedikit ke luar dari titik lampiran. However, the female will shift her tail attachment site, causing the pair to circle their common hold-fast. [25]

Phase 2: Pointing and pumping

This phase begins with the female beginning her pointing posture, by leaning her body towards the male, who will simultaneously lean away and quiver. This phase can last up to 54 minutes. Following phase 2 is a latency period (typically between 30 minutes and four hours), during which the seahorses display no courtship behaviour and females are not bright males will usually display a pumping motion with their body. [25]

Phase 3: Pointing – pointing

The third phase begins with the females brightening and assuming the pointing position. The males respond with their own brightening and pointing display. This phase ends with the male departing. It usually lasts nine minutes and can occur one to six times during courtship. [25]

Phase 4: Rising and copulation

The final courtship phase includes 5-8 bouts of courtship. Each bout of courtship begins with both the male and female anchored to the same plant about 3 cm apart usually they are facing each other and are still bright in colour from the previous phase. During the first bout, following the facing behaviour, the seahorses will rise upward together anywhere from 2 to 13 cm in a water column. During the final rise the female will insert her ovipositor and transfer her eggs though an opening into the male's brood pouch. [25]

Pembajaan

During fertilization in Hippocampus kuda the brood pouch was found to be open for only six seconds while egg deposition occurred. During this time seawater entered the pouch where the spermatozoa and eggs meet in a seawater milieu. This hyperosmotic environment facilitates sperm activation and motility. The fertilization is therefore regarded as being physiologically ‘external’ within a physically ‘internal’ environment after the closure of the pouch. [26] It is believed that this protected form of fertilization reduces sperm competition among males. Within the Syngnathidae (pipefishes and seahorses) protected fertilization has not been documented in the pipefishes but the lack of any distinct differences in the relation of testes size to body size suggests that pipefishes may also have evolved mechanisms for more efficient fertilization with reduced sperm competition. [27]

Gestation

The fertilized eggs are then embedded in the pouch wall and become surrounded by a spongy tissue. [28] The male supplies the eggs with prolactin, the same hormone responsible for milk production in pregnant mammals. The pouch provides oxygen, as well as a controlled environment incubator. Though the egg yolk contributes nourishment to the developing embryo, the male sea horses contribute additional nutrients such as energy-rich lipids and also calcium to allow them to build their skeletal system, by secreting them into the brood pouch that are absorbed by the embryos. Further they also offer immunological protection, osmoregulation, gas exchange and waste transport. [29]

The eggs then hatch in the pouch, where the salinity of the water is regulated this prepares the newborns for life in the sea. [23] [30] [31] Throughout gestation, which in most species requires two to four weeks, his mate visits him daily for “morning greetings”.

Kelahiran

The number of young released by the male seahorse averages 100–1000 for most species, but may be as low as 5 for the smaller species, or as high as 2,500. When the fry are ready to be born, the male expels them with muscular contractions. He typically gives birth at night and is ready for the next batch of eggs by morning when his mate returns. Like almost all other fish species, seahorses do not nurture their young after birth. Infants are susceptible to predators or ocean currents which wash them away from feeding grounds or into temperatures too extreme for their delicate bodies. Less than 0.5% of infants survive to adulthood, explaining why litters are so large. These survival rates are actually fairly high compared to other fish, because of their protected gestation, making the process worth the great cost to the father. The eggs of most other fish are abandoned immediately after fertilization. [31]

Reproductive roles

Reproduction is energetically costly to the male. This brings into question why the sexual role reversal even takes place. In an environment where one partner incurs more energy costs than the other, Bateman's principle suggests that the lesser contributor takes the role of the aggressor. Male seahorses are more aggressive and sometimes “fight” for female attention. According to Amanda Vincent of Project Seahorse, only males tail-wrestle and snap their heads at each other. This discovery prompted further study of energy costs. To estimate the female's direct contribution, researchers chemically analyzed the energy stored in each egg. To measure the burden on the males, oxygen consumption was used. By the end of incubation, the male consumed almost 33% more oxygen than before mating. The study concluded that the female's energy expenditure while generating eggs is twice that of males during incubation, confirming the standard hypothesis. [23]

Why the male seahorse (and other members of the Syngnathidae) carries the offspring through gestation is unknown, though some researchers believe it allows for shorter birthing intervals, in turn resulting in more offspring. [33] Given an unlimited number of ready and willing partners, males have the potential to produce 17% more offspring than females in a breeding season. Also, females have “time-outs” from the reproductive cycle 1.2 times longer than those of males. This seems to be based on mate choice, rather than physiology. When the female's eggs are ready, she must lay them in a few hours or eject them into the water column. Making eggs is a huge cost to her physically, since they amount to about a third of her body weight. To protect against losing a clutch, the female demands a long courtship. The daily greetings help to cement the bond between the pair. [34]

Monogamy

Though seahorses are not known to mate for life, many species form pair bonds that last through at least the breeding season. Some species show a higher level of mate fidelity than others. [35] [36] However, many species readily switch mates when the opportunity arises. H. abdominalis dan H. breviceps have been shown to breed in groups, showing no continuous mate preference. Many more species' mating habits have not been studied, so it is unknown how many species are actually monogamous, or how long those bonds actually last. [37]

Although monogamy within fish is not common, it does appear to exist for some. In this case, the mate-guarding hypothesis may be an explanation. This hypothesis states, “males remain with a single female because of ecological factors that make male parental care and protection of offspring especially advantageous.” [38] Because the rates of survival for newborn seahorses are so low, incubation is essential. Though not proven, males could have taken on this role because of the lengthy period the females require to produce their eggs. If males incubate while females prepare the next clutch (amounting to a third of body weight), they can reduce the interval between clutches. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Seahorses use their long snouts to eat their food with ease. However, they are slow to consume their food and have extremely simple digestive systems that lack a stomach, so they must eat constantly to stay alive. [40] Seahorses are not very good swimmers, and for this reason they need to anchor themselves to seaweed, coral or anything else that will anchor the seahorse in place. They do this by using their prehensile tails to grasp their object of choice. [41] Seahorses feed on small crustaceans floating in the water or crawling on the bottom. With excellent camouflage seahorses ambush prey that floats within striking range, sitting and waiting until an optimal moment. [40] Mysid shrimp and other small crustaceans are favorites, but some seahorses have been observed eating other kinds of invertebrates and even larval fish. In a study of seahorses, the distinctive head morphology was found to give them a hydrodynamic advantage that creates minimal interference while approaching an evasive prey. Thus the seahorse can get very close to the copepods on which it preys. [39] [42] After successfully closing in on the prey without alerting it, the seahorse gives an upward thrust and rapidly rotates the head aided by large tendons that store and release elastic energy, to bring its long snout close to the prey. This step is crucial for prey capture, as oral suction only works at a close range. This two-phase prey capture mechanism is termed pivot-feeding. [42] [43] Seahorses have three distinctive feeding phases: preparatory, expansive, and recovery. During the preparatory phase, the seahorse slowly approaches the prey while in an upright position, after which it slowly flexes its head ventrally. In the expansive phase, the seahorse captures its prey by simultaneously elevating its head, expanding the buccal cavity, and sucking in the prey item. During the recovery phase, the jaws, head, and hyoid apparatus of the seahorse return to their original positions. [44]

The amount of available cover influences the seahorses feeding behaviour. For example, in wild areas with small amounts of vegetation, seahorses will sit and wait, but an environment with extensive vegetation will prompt the seahorse to inspect its environment, feeding while swimming rather than sitting and waiting. Conversely, in an aquarium setting with little vegetation, the seahorse will fully inspect its environment and makes no attempt to sit and wait. [45]

Because data is lacking on the sizes of the various seahorse populations, as well as other issues including how many seahorses are dying each year, how many are being born, and the number used for souvenirs, there is insufficient information to assess their risk of extinction, and the risk of losing more seahorses remains a concern. Some species, such as the Paradoxical Seahorse, H. paradoxus, may already be extinct. [ rujukan diperlukan ] Coral reefs and seagrass beds are deteriorating, reducing viable habitats for seahorses. [46] Additionally, bycatch in many areas causes high cumulative effects on seahorses, with an estimated 37 million individuals being removed annually over 21 countries. [47]

While many aquarium hobbyists keep them as pets, seahorses collected from the wild tend to fare poorly in home aquaria. Many eat only live foods such as brine shrimp and are prone to stress, which damages their immune systems and makes them susceptible to disease. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

In recent years, however, captive breeding has become more popular. Such seahorses survive better in captivity, and are less likely to carry diseases. They eat frozen mysidacea (crustaceans) that are readily available from aquarium stores, [48] and do not experience the stress of moving out of the wild. Although captive-bred seahorses are more expensive, they take no toll on wild populations.

Seahorses should be kept in an aquarium with low flow and placid tank mates. They are slow feeders, so fast, aggressive feeders will leave them without food. [48] Seahorses can coexist with many species of shrimp and other bottom-feeding creatures. Gobies also make good tank-mates. Keepers are generally advised to avoid eels, tangs, triggerfish, squid, octopus, and sea anemones. [49]

Water quality is very important for the survival of seahorses in an aquarium. They are delicate species which should not be added to a new tank. The water parameters are recommended to be as follows although these fish may acclimatise to different water over time:

  • Temperature: 23–28 °C (73–82 °F)
  • pH: 8.1–8.4
  • Ammonia: 0 mg/l (0 ppm) (0.01 mg/l (0.01 ppm) may be tolerated for short periods)
  • Nitrite: 0 mg/l (0 ppm) (0.125 mg/l (0.125 ppm) may be tolerated for short periods)
  • S.G.: 1.021–1.024 at 23–24 °C (73–75 °F) [rujukan diperlukan]

A water-quality problem will affect fish behaviour and can be shown by clamped fins, reduced feeding, erratic swimming, and gasping at the surface. [50] Seahorses swim up and down, as well as using the length of the aquarium. Therefore, the tanks should ideally be twice as deep as the length of the adult seahorse. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Animals sold as "freshwater seahorses" are usually the closely related pipefish, of which a few species live in the lower reaches of rivers. The supposed true "freshwater seahorse" called H. aimei is not a valid species, but a synonym sometimes used for Barbour's and hedgehog seahorses. The latter, which is often confused with the former, can be found in estuarine environments, but is not actually a freshwater fish. [51]


Mapping Stored Emotions in the Body as a Means of Healing Physical Pain

The Body is a map of every experience we ever had. As we bridge the mind body and spirit we can better understand the connection between trapped emotions and physical ailments causing us suffering. We can go years and even decades without realizing that we have trapped emotions or where they stem from. We wind up holding on to blocked energy which can manifest into pain.

Causes of muscle tension, pain and suffering stem from social conditioning, trauma, and psychological stressors:

Social conditioning starts in our earlier years of life and is reinforced throughout the rest of our lives by our parents, friends, teachers, family members, and society. . A lot of the muscle tension that we develop is the result of unspoken social beliefs that we were taught to adopt as a way of being “acceptable” or likable. When we act without consciousness we run on auto pilot and it’s almost as if we are computers being programmed according to social conditioning.

Trauma can be caused by an overwhelmingly negative event that causes a lasting impact on your mental and emotional stability. While many sources of trauma are physically violent in nature, others are psychological.

When traumatic experiences aren’t consciously dealt with, they can result in chronic fear, stress, and even occurrences of ptsd. This chronic anxiety, anger, and grief tends to get stored within the body resulting in muscle tension which contributes to numerous other illnesses such as fibromyalgia, digestive disorders, mental illnesses, and even cancer.

Psychological tension is any form of anxiety, frustration, sadness or anger that we develop as a result of our perceptions.. The more negative, fearful or fault-finding our perspective is, the more tension we tend to store in our muscles.

Emotions and Our Bodies

Everything on the Physical plane is a manifestation of something on the Metaphysical plane. According to author Louise Hay, physical symptoms are merely tangible evidence of what is going on in your unconscious mind and how you are sungguh feeling deep inside. Scientists are now able to measure the physiological effects of emotional states. Your body actually becomes weaker or stronger depending on your mental state.

Shame resonates at the lowest vibration, followed by guilt, and then apathy, grief, fear, anxiety, craving, anger and hate. Conversely, trust, optimism, willingness, acceptance, forgiveness, understanding, love, reverence, joy, serenity and enlightenment strengthen you. Have you suffered an accident or injury? What was happening in your life around that time? Recall your mental state and how you were feeling. When an accident occurs, weak or incoherent emotional areas are where an injury will gravitate. Your biology is a combination of verbal, intellectual, physical and psycho-emotional states of harmony or conflict. For instance, the left side of your body reflects the problem has its roots in your past, while the right side reflects how to feel about your future. Injuries or pain generally appear on one side of the body. One-sided pain issues reflect the side of you that feels confused or unsupported.

Mapping your emotions:

awak sebelah kiri Based on the functions of your brain’s hemispheres, your left side is receptive, or yin. It responds to stimulus from your environment. It holds your experiences (past), your emotional self, your memories, and emotional joy or pain.

awak sebelah kanan organizes and moves you forward into the future. It governs how you interact with the world. That is a yang energy. When you are experiencing problems on your right side, you may feel stuck or hampered in moving forward. Or you may be experiencing unwanted change that is causing fear, reluctance, or trepidation.

awak front side reveals your social or public self, the part of you that the world sees. It reflects those aspects of yourself that are active ingredients in your day-to-day living. This includes communication, desire, caring, loving, happiness, sadness. These show in your face, posture and body language

awak back side reflects private and unconscious elements of your life. This side becomes the storehouse for everything you don’t want to deal with or don’t want other people to see. Hidden or unexpressed feelings become frozen into the structure of your body. That means a lot of negative emotions become stored along your spine and in the backs of your legs. Most of your powerful emotions such as anger and fear are stored in your back.

Causes of symptoms according to Louise Hay is an instrumental guide to understanding how our thoughts create our life experiences. In her book You Can Heal Your Life she explains that the key to true happiness is self love. She focuses on loving yourself, as once you love you, everything you want will flow to you naturally.

Symptoms list: by Louise Hay

A
Abdominal Cramps: Fear. Stopping the process.
Abscess: Fermenting thoughts over hurts, slights and revenge.
Accidents: Inability to speak up for the self. Rebellion against authority. Belief in violence.
Aches: Longing for love. Longing to be held.
Acne: Not accepting the self. Dislike of the self.
Addictions: Running from the self. Takut. Not knowing how to love self.
Adrenal Problems: Defeatism. No longer caring for the self. Kebimbangan.
Alcoholism: Feeling of futility, guilt, inadequacy. Self-rejection.
Allergies: Denying your own power.
Alzheimer’s Disease: Refusal to deal with the world as it is. Hopelessness and helplessness. Kemarahan.
Amenorrhea: Not wanting to be a woman. Dislike of the self.
Anemia: “Yes-but” attitude. Lack of joy. Fear of life. Not feeling good enough.
Ankle: Inflexibility and guilt. Ankles represent the ability to receive pleasure.
Anorexia: Denying the self life. Extreme fear, self-hatred and rejection.
Anxiety: Not trusting the flow and the process of life.
Apathy: Resistance to feeling. Deadening of the self. Takut.
Appetite, Excessive: Fear. Needing protection. Judging the emotions.
Arm: Represents the capacity and ability to hold the experiences of life.
Arteries: Carry the joy of life.
Arthritic Fingers: A desire to punish. Blame. Feeling victimized.
Arthritis: Feeling unloved. Criticism, resentment. – Rheumatoid Arthritis: Feeling victimized. Lack of love. Chronic bitterness. Resentment. Deep criticism of authority. Feeling very put upon.
Asthma: Smother love. Inability to breathe for one’s self. Feeling stifled. Suppressed crying.
Athlete’s Foot: Frustration at not being accepted. Inability to move forward with ease.
B
Back Issues: Represents the support of life. Back Problems: – Rounded shoulders: Carrying the burdens of life. Helpless and hopeless. – Lower Back Pain: Fear of money or lack of financial support. – Mid-Back Pain: Guilt. Stuck in all that stuff back there. “Get off my back!” – Upper Back Pain: Lack of emotional support. Feeling unloved. Holding back love. – Back Curvature: The inability to flow with the support of life. Fear and trying to hold on to old ideas. Not trusting life. Lack of integrity. No courage of convictions.
Bad Breath: Anger and revenge thoughts. Experiences backing up.
Balance, Loss of: Scattered thinking. Not centered.
Baldness: Fear. Tension. Trying to control everything.
Bedwetting: Fear of parent, usually the father.
Belching: Fear. Gulping life too quickly.
Bell’s Palsy: Extreme control over anger. Unwillingness to express feelings.
Bladder Problems: Anxiety. Holding on to old ideas. Fear of letting go. Being “pissed off”.
Bleeding: Joy running out. Kemarahan.
Blisters: Resistance. Lack of emotional protection.
Blood Pressure: – High: Longstanding emotional problem not solved. – Low: Lack of love as a child. Defeatism.
Body Odor: Fear. Dislike of the self. Fear of others.
Bones: Represent the structure of the universe. – Bone marrow: Represents deepest beliefs about the self. How you support and care for yourself. – Breaks: Rebelling against authority.
Brain: Represents the computer, the switchboard. – Tumor: Incorrect computerized beliefs. Stubborn. Refusing to change old patterns.
Breast: Represents mothering and nurturing and nourishment. – Cysts, Lumps: A refusal to nourish the self. Putting everyone else first. Over mothering. Overprotection. Overbearing attitudes.
Breath: Represents the ability to take in life. – Breathing Problems: Fear. Not trusting the process of life. Getting stuck in childhood. Fear of taking in life fully. – Bronchitis: Inflamed family environment. Arguments and yelling.
Bruises: The little bumps in life. Self-punishment.
Bulimia: Hopeless terror. A frantic stuffing and purging of self-hatred.
Burns: Anger. Burning up. Incensed.
Bursitis: Repressed anger. Wanting to hit someone.
C
Calluses: Hardened concepts and ideas. Fear solidified.
Cancer: Deep hurt. Longstanding resentment. Deep secret or grief eating away at the self. Carrying hatreds.
Candida: Feeling very scattered. Lots of frustration and anger. Demanding and untrusting in relationships. Great takers.
Canker Sores: Festering words held back by the lips. Blame.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Anger and frustration at life’s seeming injustices.
Cataracts: Inability to see ahead with joy. Dark future.
Cellulite: Stored anger and self-punishment.
Cerebral Palsy: A need to unite the family in an action of love.
Chills: Mental contraction, pulling away and in. Desire to retreat.
Cholesterol: Clogging the channels of joy. Fear of accepting joy.
Circulation: Represents the ability to feel and express the emotions in positive ways.
Colds: Too much going on at once. Mental confusion, disorder. Small hurts.
Colic: Mental irritation, impatience, annoyance in the surroundings.
Colitis: Insecurity. Represents the ease of letting go of that which is over.
Coma: Fear. Escaping something or someone.
Conjunctivitis: Anger and frustration at what you are looking at in life.
Constipation: Incomplete releasing. Holding on to garbage of the past. Guilt over the past. Sometimes stinginess.
Corns: Hardened areas of thought – stubborn holding on to the pain of the past.
Coughs: A desire to bark at the world. “Listen to me!”
Cramps: Tension. Takut. Gripping, holding on.
Crohn’s Disease: Fear. Worry. Not feeling good enough.
Crying: Tears are the river of life, shed in joy as well as in sadness and fear.
Cuts: Punishment for not following your own rules.
Cysts: Running the old painful movie. Nursing hurts. A false growth.
Cystic Fibrosis: A thick belief that life won’t work for you. “Poor me.”
D
Deafness: Rejection, stubbornness, isolation. What don’t you want to hear? “Don’t bother me.”
Depression: Anger you feel you do not have a right to have. Hopelessness.
Diabetes: Longing for what might have been. A great need to control. Deep sorrow. No sweetness left.
Diarrhea: Fear. Rejection. Running off.
Dizziness: Flighty, scattered thinking. A refusal to look.
Dry eyes: Angry eyes. Refusing to see with love. Would rather die than forgive. Being spiteful.
Dysmenorrhea: Anger at the self. Hatred of the body or of women.
E
Ear: Represents the capacity to hear. – Ache: Anger. Not wanting to hear. Too much turmoil. Household arguing.
Eczema: Breath-taking antagonism. Mental eruptions.
Edema: What or who won’t you let go of?
Elbow: Represents changing directions and accepting new experiences.
Emphysema: Fear of taking in life. Not worthy of living.
Endometriosis: Insecurity, disappointment and frustration. Replacing self-love with sugar. Blamers.
Epilepsy: Sense of persecution. Rejection of life. A feeling of great struggle. Self-violence.
Epstein-Barr Virus: Pushing beyond one’s limits. Fear of not being good enough. Draining all inner support. Tekanan.
Eye: Represents the capacity to see clearly past, present, future. – Astigmatism: “I” trouble. Fear of really seeing the self. – Hyperopia: Fear of the present. – Myopia: Fear of the future.
F
Face: Represents what we show the world.
Fainting: Fear. Can’t cope. Blacking out.
Fat or Weight issues: Oversensitivity. Often represents fear and shows a need for protection. Fear may be a cover for hidden anger and a resistance to forgive. Running away from feelings. Insecurity, self-rejection and seeking fulfillment. – Arms: Anger at being denied love. – Belly: Anger at being denied nourishment. – Hips: Lumps of stubborn anger at the parents. – Thighs: Packed childhood anger. Often rage at the father.
Fatigue: Resistance, boredom. Lack of love for what one does.
Feet: Represent our understanding – of ourselves, of life, of others. – Foot Problems: Fear of the future and of not stepping forward in life.
Fever: Anger. Burning up.
Fibroid Tumors: Nursing a hurt from a partner. A blow to the feminine ego.
Fingers: Represent the details of life. – Thumb: Represents intellect and worry. – Index: Represents ego and fear. – Middle: Represents anger and sexuality. – Ring: Represents unions and grief. – Little: Represents the family and pretending.
Food Poisoning: Allowing others to take control. Feeling defenseless.
Frigidity: Fear. Denial of pleasure. A belief that sex is bad. Insensitive partners. Fear of father.
Fungus: Stagnating beliefs. Refusing to release the past. Letting the past rule today.
G
Gallstones: Bitterness. Hard thoughts. Condemning. Pride.
Gas: Gripping. Takut. Undigested ideas.
Gastritis: Prolonged uncertainty. A feeling of doom.
Genitals: Represent the masculine and feminine principles. Worry about not being good enough.
Gland Problems: Represent holding stations. Self-staring activity. Holding yourself back.
Gout: The need to dominate. Impatience, anger.
Glaucoma: Stony unforgiveness. Pressure from longstanding hurts. Overwhelmed by it all.
Gray Hair: Stress. A belief in pressure and strain.
Growths: Nursing those old hurts. Building resentments.
Gum Problems: Inability to back up decisions. Indecisive about life.
H
Hands: Hold and handle. Clutch and grip. Grasping and letting go. Caressing. Pinching. All ways of dealing with experiences.
Hay Fever: Emotional congestion. Fear of the calendar. A belief in persecution. Guilt.
Headaches: Invalidating the self. Self-criticism. Takut.
Heart: Represents the center of love and security. – Heart Attack: Squeezing all the joy out of the heart in favor of money or position. Feeling alone and scared. “I’m not good enough. I don’t do enough. I’ll never make it.” – Heart Problems: Longstanding emotional problems. Lack of joy. Hardening of the heart. Belief in strain and stress.
Heartburn: Fear. Takut. Takut. Clutching Fear.
Hemorrhoids: Fear of deadlines. Anger of the past. Afraid to let go. Feeling burdened.
Hepatitis: Resistance to change. Fear, anger, hatred. Liver is the seat of anger and rage.
Hernia: Ruptured relationships. Strain, burdens, incorrect creative expression.
Herpes Genitalis: Mass belief in sexual guilt and the need for punishment. Public shame. Belief in a punishing God. Rejection of the genitals.
Herpes Simplex: Bitter words left unspoken.
Hip: Carries the body in perfect balance. Major thrust in moving forward. Fear of going forward in major decisions. Nothing to move forward to.
Hives: Small, hidden fears. Mountains out of molehills.
Hodgkin’s Disease: Blame and a tremendous fear of not being good enough. A frantic race to prove one’s self until the blood has no substance left to support itself. The joy of life is forgotten in the race of acceptance.
Hyperactivity: Fear. Feeling pressured and frantic.
Hyperventilation: Fear. Resisting change. Not trusting the process.
Hypoglycemia: Overwhelmed by the burdens in life.

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Impotence: Sexual pressure, tension, guilt. Social beliefs. Spite against a previous mate. Fear of mother.
Incontinence: Emotional overflow. Years of controlling emotions.
Indigestion: Gut-level fear, dread, anxiety. Griping and grunting.
Infection: Irritation, anger, annoyance.
Inflammation: Fear. Seeing red. Inflamed thinking. Anger and frustration about conditions you are looking at in your life.
Influenza: Response to mass negativity and beliefs. Takut. Belief in statistics.
Ingrown Toenail: Worry and guilt about your right to move forward.
Injuries: Anger at the self. Feeling guilty.
Insanity: Fleeing from the family. Escapism, withdrawal. Violent separation from life.
Insomnia: Fear. Not trusting the process of life. Guilt.
Intestines: Represent assimilation and absorption.
Itching: Desires that go against the grain. Unsatisfied. Remorse. Itching to get out or get away.
J
Jaundice: Internal and external prejudice. Unbalanced reason.
Jaw Problems: Anger. Resentment. Desire for revenge.
K
Kidney Problems: Criticism, disappointment, failure. Shame. Reacting like a child.
Kidney Stones: Lumps of undissolved anger.
Knee: Represents pride and ego. Stubborn ego and pride. Inability to bend. Takut. Inflexibility. Won’t give in.
L
Laryngitis: So mad you can’t speak. Fear of speaking up. Resentment of authority.
Left Side of Body: Represents receptivity, taking in, feminine energy, women, the mother.
Leg: Carry us forward in life.
Liver: Seat of anger and primitive emotions. Chronic complaining. Justifying fault-finding to deceive yourself. Feeling bad.
Lockjaw: Anger. A desire to control. A refusal to express feelings.
Lump in the Throat: Fear. Not trusting the process of life.
Lung: The ability to take in life. Kemurungan. Grief. Not feeling worthy of living life fully.
Lupus: A giving up. Better to die than stand up for one’s self. Anger and punishment.
Lymph Problems: A warning that the mind needs to be recentered on the essentials of life. Love and joy.
M
Malaria: Out of balance with nature and with life.
Menopause Problems: Fear of no longer being wanted. Fear of aging. Self-rejection. Not feeling good enough.
Menstrual Problems: Rejection of one’s femininity. Guilt, fear. Belief that the genitals are sinful or dirty.
Migraine Headaches: Dislike of being driven. Resisting the flow of life. Sexual fears.
Miscarriage: Fear of the future. Inappropriate timing.
Mononucleosis: Anger at not receiving love and appreciation. No longer caring for the self.
Motion Sickness: Fear. Bondage. Feeling of being trapped.
Mouth: Represents taking in of new ideas and nourishment. Set opinions. Closed mind. Incapacity to take in new ideas.
Multiple Sclerosis: Mental hardness, hard-heartedness, iron will, inflexibility.
Muscles: Resistance to new experiences. Muscles represent our ability to move in life.
Muscular Dystrophy: “It’s not worth growing up.”
N
Nails: Represent protection. – Nail Biting: Frustration. Eating away at the self. Spite of a parent.
Narcolepsy: Can’t cope. Extreme fear. Wanting to get away from it all. Not wanting to be here.
Nausea: Fear. Rejecting an idea or experience.
Neck: Represents flexibility. The ability to see what’s back there. Refusing to see other sides of a question. Stubbornness, inflexibility. Unbending stubbornness.
Nephritis: Overreaction to disappointment and failure.
Nerves: Represent communication. Receptive reporters.
Nervous Breakdown: Self-centeredness. Jamming the channels of communication.
Nervousness: Fear, anxiety, struggle, rushing. Not trusting the process of life.
Neuralgia: Punishment for guilt. Anguish over communication.
Nodules: Resentment and frustration and hurt ego over career.
Nose: Represents self-recognition. – Nose Bleeds:A need for recobnition. Feeling unnoticed. Crying for love. – Runny Nose: Asking for help. Inner crying. – Stuffy Nose: Not recognizing the self-worth.
Numbness: Withholding love and consideration. Going dead mentally.
O
Osteomyelitis: Anger and frustration at the very structure of life. Feeling unsupported.
Osteoporosis: Feeling there is no support left in life. Mental pressures and tightness. Muscles can’t stretch. Loss of mental mobility.
Ovaries: Represent points of creation. Kreativiti.
PQ
Pain: Guilt. Guilt always seeks punishment.
Paralysis: Paralysing thoughts. Getting stuck. Terror leading to escape from a situation or person.
Pancreas: Represents the sweetness of life.
Pancreatitis: Rejection. Anger and frustration because life seems to have lost its sweetness.
Parasites: Giving power to others, letting them take over and life off of you.
Parkinson’s Disease: Fear and an intense desire to control everything and everyone.
Peptic Ulcer: Fear. A belief that you are not good enough. Anxious to please.
Phlebitis: Anger and frustration. Blaming others for the limitation and lack of joy in life.
Pimples: Small outbursts of anger.
Pituitary Gland: Represents the control center.
Pneumonia: Desperate. Tired of life. Emotional wounds that are not allowed to heal.
Poison Ivy: Allergy Feeling defenseless and open to attack.
Polio: Paralysing jealousy. A desire to stop someone.
Premenstrual Syndrome: Allowing confusion to reign. Giving power to outside influences. Rejection of the feminine processes.
Prostate: Represents the masculine principle. Mental fears weaken the masculinity. Giving up. Sexual pressure and guilt. Belief in aging.
Psoriasis: Fear of being hurt. Deadening the senses of the self. Refusing to accept responsibility for our own feelings.
R
Rash: Irritation over delays. Immature way to get attention.
Right Side of Body: Giving out, letting go, masculine energy, men, the father.
Ringworm: Allowing others to get under your skin. Not feeling good enough or clean enough.

S
Scabies: Infected thinking. Allowing others to get under your skin.
Sciatica: Being hypocritical. Fear of money and of the future.
Scleroderma: Protecting the self from life. Not trusting yourself to be there and to take care of yourself.
Scratches: Feeling life tears at you, that life is a rip off.
Senility: Returning to the so-called safety of childhood. Demanding care and attention. A form of control of those around you. Escapism.
Shin: Represents the standards of life. Breaking down ideals.
Shingles: Waiting for the other shoe to drop. Fear and tension. Too sensitive.
Sinus Problems: Irritation to one person, someone close.
Skin: Protects our individuality. Anxiety, fear. Old, buried things. I am being threatened.
Slipped Disc: Feeling totally unsupported by life. Indecisive.
Snoring: Stubborn refusal to let go of old patterns.
Solar Plexus: Gut reactions. Center of our intuitive power.
Sores: Unexpressed anger that settles in.
Spleen: Obsessions. Being obsessed about things.
Sprains: Anger and resistance. Not wanting to move in a certain direction in life.
Sterility: Fear and resistance to the process of life or not needing to go through the parenting experience.
Stiffness: Rigid, stiff thinking.
Stomach: Holds nourishment. Digests ideas. Dread. Fear of the new. Inability to assimilate the new.
Stroke: Giving up. Resistance. Rather die than change. Rejection of life.

Stuttering: Insecurity. Lack of self-expression. Not being allowed to cry.
Sty: Looking at life through angry eyes. Angry at someone.
Suicidal thoughts: See life only in black and white. Refusal to see another way out.
T
Teeth: Represent decisions. – Teeth Problems: Longstanding indecisiveness. Inability to break down ideas for analysis and decisions. – Root Canal: Can’t bite into anything anymore. Root beliefs being destroyed. – Impacted Wisdom Teeth: Not giving yourself mental space to create a firm foundation.
Throat: Avenue of expression. Channel of creativity. – Throat Problems: The inability to speak up for one’s self. Swallowed anger. Stifled creativity. Refusal to change. – Sore throat: Holding in angry words. Feeling unable to express the self.
Thrush: Anger over making the wrong decisions.
Thymus Gland: Feeling attacked by life. They are out to get me.
Thyroid Gland: Humiliation. I never get to do what I want to do. When is it going to be my turn. – Hyperthyroid: Rage at being left out.
Tics, Twitches: Fear. A feeling of being watched by others.
Tinnitus or Ringing in the Ears: Refusal to listen. Not hearing the inner voice. Kedegilan.
Toes: Represent the minor details of the future.
Tongue: Represents the ability to taste the pleasures of life with joy.
Tonsillitis: Fear. Repressed emotions. Stifled creativity.
Tuberculosis: Wasting away from selfishness. Possessive. Cruel thoughts. Dendam.
U
Urinary infections: Pissed off, usually at the opposite sex or a lover. Blaming others.
Uterus: Represents the home of creativity.
V
Vaginitis: Anger at a mate. Sexual guilt. Punishing the self.
Varicose Veins: Standing in a situation you hate. Discouragement. Feeling over-worked and overburdened.
Vitiligo: Feeling completely outside of things. Not belonging. Not one of the group.
Vomiting: Violent rejection of ideas. Fear of the new.
WXYZ
Warts: Little expressions of hate. Belief in ugliness. – Plantar Warts: Anger at the very basis of your understanding. Spreading frustration about the future.
Wrist: Represents movement and ease.“The past has no power over us. It doesn’t matter how long we have had a negative pattern. The point of power is in the present moment. What a wonderful thing to realize! We can begin to be free in this moment!”

To heal your body and dissolve stored blocked emotions:

Allow yourself to really feel it or memetabolismekan ia. One of the easiest ways to let go of muscle tension is to actively feel and let go of emotions when they come. Feeling these emotions might involve crying, punching or screaming into a pillow, or any other form of catharsis.

Adopt an attitude of non judgment. When we judge our emotions as something “bad” or “wrong,” we actually deepen our suffering and solidify the tension within our muscles. Instead, simply realize that an emotion is an emotion.

Jurnal about how you feel. Let all of your emotions out in a journal, completely unfiltered. This is a very healing practice if done regularly.

Be gentle with yourself.Muscle tension tends to add to our negative inner voices which cause us even more tension. To break this cycle of the body feeding the mind and the mind feeding the body, be kind towards yourself. Treat yourself as you would a child or best friend. This practice is a simple but profound way to relax.

Regangan your muscles.Do simple stretches or try yoga to relax your muscles. Even just five minutes a day is beneficial.

Breathwork is a deep healing modality for removing stored emotions and opening up for love and freedom.

Cubalah floating. Sensory deprivation tanks are immensely healing and calming. Some of the main benefits include reaching deep states of peace and bliss, muscle relaxation, enhanced magnesium, better sleep, improved skin, mental clarity, and improved focus. To get the most out of floating, try a minimum of three sessions.

Mendapat urut. Seek out a licensed massage therapist to reduce your muscle tension. Alternatively, use something like the a foam roller to give yourself a deep tissue massage

Meditate. Meditation is a great way to become more present and conscious of muscle tension as it arises.

Art therapy. Express how you feel through painting, drawing, sculpting or any other method of self-expression.


Why do genitals feel frozen when freefalling? - Biologi

Dupuytren Disease is condition in which there is an imbalance in the body’s ability to regulate part of the biology involved in healing and scarring. The medical name for the changes caused by Dupuytren disease is fibrosis: tough, scar like tissue forms where it doesn’t belong. Many disorders cause fibrosis – Dupuytren disease is just one of a group. Dupuytren severity varies (see http://Dupuytrens.org/three-types-of-dupuytren-disease/) from being so mild that it needs no treatment to severe and crippling despite all available treatment. There is a genetic basis and often a known family history in people who are strongly affected.

Kerana ada not yet a blood test or biomarker for Dupuytren disease, the diagnosis can only be made selepas someone has shown changes in their hand – lumps, cords, contractures.

Dupuytren disease doesn’t only affect the palms of the hands. People with severe involvement often show lumps on the back of their finger joints (called “Garrod pads”, “knuckle pads”, or “dorsal Dupuytren nodules”) and lumps in the arch of one or both feet (Ledderhose disease). In severe cases, the area where the palm meets the wrist may develop lumps. Severe Dupuytren disease is also associated with frozen shoulder, Peyronie disease of the penis, increased risk of several types of cancer, and risk of early death, but more research is needed to clarify these relationships.

Dupuytren Disease is a systemic process which can affect many areas of the body.

Kontraktur Dupuytren adalah bent fingers from Dupuytren disease. Dupuytren contracture is treated with procedures by a hand surgeon, but this does not cure the underlying disease, and so contractures often return or involve other fingers.