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Apakah sebab di sebalik itu kadang-kadang apabila saya melihat perkara baru saya rasa saya telah melihatnya?

Apakah sebab di sebalik itu kadang-kadang apabila saya melihat perkara baru saya rasa saya telah melihatnya?


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Saya telah google dan saya mendapati bahawa ia adalah, kerana ingatan yang baik, tetapi bagaimana ia boleh disebabkan oleh ingatan yang baik kerana ia tidak berlaku sebelum ini. Ia berlaku kepada saya banyak kali, bahawa saya merasakan bahawa adegan yang berlaku sekarang, telah pun berlaku kepada saya pada masa lalu saya. Tetapi ia adalah adegan baru dalam hidup saya, jadi mengapa saya berasa seperti ini? Bagaimana mungkin adegan yang sama berlaku dua kali?. Apakah sebab disebaliknya, kita merasakan sesuatu dua kali dalam hidup kita.


Apa yang anda bincangkan ialah déjà vu, perasaan biasa walaupun keadaannya tidak biasa sama sekali. Ia, sebenarnya, fenomena yang sangat biasa. Peratusan tinggi orang melaporkan telah mengalami déjà vus. Walau bagaimanapun, sukar untuk meletakkan nombor padanya, kerana pengalaman dan definisi déjà vu mungkin berbeza. Saya telah menemui nombor antara 60 dan 90% daripada populasi.

Dakwaan bahawa ini adalah tanda ingatan yang baik adalah berkaitan dengan pandangan, bahawa déjà vu bukanlah ingatan palsu, kerana anda sebenarnya sedar bahawa situasi itu sepatutnya tidak biasa kepada anda (juga disebut di sini).

Tetapi bagaimana déjà vus berlaku? Terdapat beberapa teori…

Nampak jelas bahawa déjà vus dikaitkan dengan aktiviti di lobus temporal (di sebelah otak). Di situlah ingatan diproses, terutamanya ingatan episodik (perkara yang berlaku - berbeza dengan mempelajari sesuatu kemahiran). Orang yang menghidap epilepsi sering melaporkan déjà vus sejurus sebelum sawan yang bermula di lobus temporal.

Satu teori, yang dikemukakan dalam kertas ini, mengatakan bahawa ingatan dan perasaan kebiasaan diproses di kawasan yang berbeza dan terdapat pengaktifan palsu kawasan kebiasaan semasa déjà vu. Otak tidak selalu berfungsi dengan baik, mis. sensasi palsu boleh berlaku, seperti halusinasi. Jadi, pengaktifan palsu pusat kebiasaan itu boleh memberi kita rasa biasa dalam situasi yang tidak biasa.

Sama seperti ini adalah idea, bahawa mungkin terdapat ketidakpadanan antara persepsi dan pembentukan ingatan. Apabila sesuatu yang kita alami sekarang "bocor" ke dalam ingatan kita kerana pengaktifan palsu, kita fikir ini telah berlaku pada masa lalu. Terdapat masalah dengan penjelasan ini: walaupun mempunyai perasaan biasa yang kuat semasa déjà vu, orang gagal memberikan sebarang konteks apabila peristiwa sebelumnya ini berlaku atau peristiwa lain yang telah mendahuluinya. Jadi, ia seolah-olah tidak dianggap sebagai kenangan.

Penjelasan lain boleh menjadi gabungan palsu pengalaman dengan sesuatu yang tidak berkaitan dengannya (seperti merancang perjalanan, menonton filem dengan adegan yang serupa, dsb.). Otak kita sentiasa cuba menghubungkan pengalaman. Ia mungkin salah mengenal pasti sesuatu yang anda lihat dalam gambar atau baca dalam buku sebagai pengalaman sebenar.

Seperti yang anda lihat, kami masih berjuang untuk menjelaskan fenomena itu. Ia disebabkan oleh beberapa kesilapan dalam cara otak kita melihat situasi, menulis atau mendapatkan ingatan atau memproses kebiasaan. Ralat ini mungkin pengaktifan yang salah atau masa yang salah atau sebagainya.


Sebab Sebenar Sesetengah daripada Kami Terlambat Secara Kronik

Untuk peratusan yang baik rakyat Amerika, tiga perkataan kecil lazimnya mengiringi kemasukan mereka ke mesyuarat perniagaan, kelas gimnasium, makan malam dengan rakan-rakan atau tarikh temu janji:

Adakah ini terdengar seperti anda? Banyak kerja penting telah melihat mengapa sesetengah daripada kita terlambat secara kronik. Sebenarnya terdapat banyak sebab mengapa orang tidak dapat pergi ke suatu tempat tepat pada masanya. Tetapi nampaknya terdapat satu perkara biasa yang melibatkan tingkah laku individu lewat yang kronik yang mungkin menjadi sebab paling universal untuk kelewatan mereka yang berterusan—namun ia secara konsisten diabaikan:

Orang ramai lambat kerana mereka tidak mahu awal.

Bagi mereka yang mencabar masa, motivasi asas ini mendorong tingkah laku sama ada secara sedar atau tidak.

Kebanyakan kita mengenali orang yang sentiasa menepati masa kerana mereka benci lambat. Saya termasuk dalam kategori ini sebenarnya, saya paranoid kerana lambat. Saya sampai ke tempat-tempat dengan memalukan lebih awal, yang kadangkala memerlukan saya meletakkan kereta saya di selekoh dan menunggu secara sembunyi-sembunyi supaya orang lain tidak menyedarinya. nyata masa saya sampai. (Kadang-kadang saya berfikir bahawa jika saya seorang ninja, saya masih akan pergi ke tempat-tempat dengan sangat awal, namun akan terhibur dengan fakta bahawa sejak saya seorang ninja, tiada siapa yang dapat mengetahui sama ada saya berada di sana.)

Kerana orang seperti saya tidak suka lambat, kami sentiasa menepati masa. Tetapi sama seperti kita tidak suka terlambat, kohort lain tidak suka terlambat awal. Burung anti-awal ni sebenarnya mahu menepati masa—mereka lebih suka betul tepat pada masanya.

Mahu elakkan jadi awal, maka, adalah motivasi yang kuat mengapa ramai orang terlambat secara kronik.

Apabila anda bertanya kepada seseorang mengapa mereka selalu lewat, mereka selalunya akan memberitahu anda bahawa sebab biasa atau yang diandaikan tidak semestinya menjelaskan tabiat mereka. Walaupun ketika mereka cubalah untuk diatur, pertimbangkan masa orang lain, atau tetapkan penggera, mereka masih cenderung terlambat. Dan mereka biasanya ketinggalan dengan jumlah masa yang sama—lima, 10, atau 15 minit—cukup lewat sehingga ia tidak memudaratkan acara mereka, tetapi masih menjengkelkan orang di sekeliling mereka. Walaupun sangat ingin menghentikan tabiat itu, motivasi bercanggah untuk tidak terlambat atau awal menimbulkan masalah sebenar.

Sukar untuk mendamaikan kedua-dua cita-cita yang bersaing ini.

Jadi kenapa adakah kumpulan kedua ini benci untuk awal?

Terdapat pelbagai sebab. Yang paling biasa termasuk:

  • Ia tidak cekap. Menjadi awal memerlukan perlu duduk-duduk tanpa melakukan apa-apa. Masa menunggu adalah cukup singkat sehingga anda tidak boleh masuk ke mana-mana projek lain sebaik sahaja anda melakukannya, masanya sudah tamat.
  • Mereka bencikegelisahan menjadi awal. Mereka berasa janggal dan tidak selesa menunggu. Mereka mungkin merasakan seolah-olah orang lain sedang memerhati dan menilai mereka, sama ada ini benar atau tidak. Tiba beberapa minit lebih awal membuatkan anda berasa bangga dan yakin, tetapi tiba juga awal boleh buat awak rasa bodoh. Anda takut orang lain mungkin berfikir bahawa anda tidak mempunyai kehidupan selain daripada acara ini, dan anda tidak mahu orang lain berfikir bahawa masa anda tidak berharga. Ambil contoh tarikh: Jika anda sampai ke sana agak awal, itu kelihatan hebat. Tetapi jika anda tiba terlalu awal, tiba-tiba anda bimbang bahawa anda terdesak.
  • Terdapat kos peluang yang dikaitkan dengan mendapatkan tempat lebih awal. Sama seperti masa orang lain adalah berharga dan anda ingin menghormatinya untuk menepati masa, begitu juga anda masa berharga dan anda lebih suka menggunakannya secara produktif daripada menunggu dengan tidak cekap.
  • Kadang-kadang anda tidak mahu menjadi awal untuk bersopan. Anda mungkin tidak mahu mengganggu seseorang dengan sampai ke sana terlalu cepat—katakan, majlis makan malam rakan—jadi anda lebih suka sampai ke sana lewat sedikit.

Walaupun ramai individu melihat menjadi awal sebagai satu kebaikan, ramai yang lain tidak. Awal tidak dihargai kepada mereka ia membuang masa.

Satu artikel di USA Today membincangkan kos kelewatan untuk CEO. Satu contoh hipotetikal: Jika Sanford Weill, pada masa itu Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif Citigroup, tiba 15 minit lewat untuk mesyuarat dengan empat leftenannya yang mendapat gaji terbaik, ia menelan kos syarikat $4,250, harga masa empat pekerja itu. (Itu pada tahun 2002, fikirkan berapa kos ketibaan lewat yang serupa hari ini.) Namun, hujah yang sama boleh digunakan untuk kos menjadi awal. Jika empat pekerja yang bergaji besar itu tiba 15 minit sebelum ini Weill sampai ke mesyuarat itu, yang masih akan menyebabkan syarikat itu merugikan $4,250 dalam masa yang sia-sia.

Dalam kedua-duanya senario, masa adalah wang.

Sudah tentu, mustahil untuk tiba tepat pada masanya setiap masa. Memandangkan kami tidak dapat mengawal keadaan luaran seperti trafik dan kecemasan keluarga, satu-satunya cara untuk bertindak segera ialah menyasarkan untuk sampai ke tempat beberapa minit lebih awal. Itu meninggalkan kita dengan masalah motivasi: Bagaimana burung anti-awal hanya menggigit peluru dan berisiko menjadi awal untuk menepati masa? (Selalunya, apabila seseorang sampai ke sesuatu tempat lebih awal, dia memutuskan, "Lain kali saya akan kurangkan masa untuk sampai ke sini.")

Penyelesaian untuk benar-benar membetulkan tabiat itu, maka, bukan untuk memikirkan cara untuk menjadi tepat pada masanya tetapi lebih kepada berfikir tentang bagaimana untuk membuat menjadi awal lebih berharga. Artikel USA Today yang sama menyebut bahawa Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif Dell Computer Michael Dell menghadiri mesyuarat lebih awal dan cuba memanfaatkan masa itu dengan sebaiknya. Dia berkata dalam artikel itu, "Saya cuba pergi ke mesyuarat agak awal supaya saya dapat melihat mood pasukan dan mempunyai peluang untuk berinteraksi secara tidak rasmi sebelum kita memulakan perniagaan yang serius."

Merangka semula masa awal itu sebagai sesuatu berharga membuatkan anda berasa seperti masa anda digunakan secara membina, sama ada untuk kepentingan anda sendiri atau orang lain.

Jika anda cuba memotivasikan orang lain untuk berhenti terlambat secara kronik, ingat bahawa walaupun Benjamin Franklin menyokong kebaikan tidur awal dan bangun awal, selalu ada orang lain yang bersetuju sebaliknya dengan Franklin D. Roosevelt, yang berkata: "Saya fikir kita terlalu menganggap nasib baik burung awal dan tidak cukup nasib buruk cacing awal."


Kehadiran mistik

Itu bukan kesnya dengan FoP. “[Ini’] lebih mistik,” kata pakar neurologi Olaf Blanke dari Institut Teknologi Persekutuan Switzerland di Lausanne. “Anda yakin bahawa ada sesuatu, tetapi anda tidak melihat apa-apa, anda tidak mendengar apa-apa.”

Untuk mengenal pasti mekanisme neural yang berpotensi di sebalik FoP, pasukan Blanke’s mula-mula mengkaji 12 orang yang menghidap epilepsi dan masalah motor deria yang lain, yang kesemuanya telah melaporkan merasakan kehadiran berdekatan. Analisis mereka menunjukkan kerosakan di tiga kawasan otak: persimpangan temporoparietal (TPJ), insula dan korteks frontal-parietal.

Dalam kajian terdahulu, pasukan Blanke’s telah mengaitkan TPJ dengan pengalaman luar badan dan insula dengan halusinasi doppelgänger. Biasanya, kawasan otak ini mengintegrasikan isyarat deria dari luar dan dalam badan, untuk mewujudkan deria diri yang terkandung. Dalam pengalaman luar badan dan keadaan lain seperti itu, penyepaduan isyarat multideria ini terjejas, membawa kepada halusinasi.

Kajian baharu menunjukkan bahawa FoP melibatkan gangguan bukan sahaja dalam penyepaduan sensasi luaran dan dalaman dalam TPJ dan insula, tetapi juga isyarat yang berkaitan dengan pergerakan (yang diproses dalam korteks frontal-parietal).

Berbekalkan pengetahuan ini, pasukan Blanke’s beralih kepada robot untuk melihat sama ada mereka boleh menggunakannya untuk mengganggu proses normal otak dan menimbulkan perasaan kehadiran.


2. Trauma Lalu

Kadangkala sukar untuk meninggalkan perkara pada masa lalu, dan kenangan tentang trauma atau kesakitan masa lalu boleh merayap kembali apabila anda tidak menjangkakannya.

Bahagian tertentu dalam rutin harian anda boleh mencetuskan tindak balas emosi. Kadangkala, sukar untuk mengetahui dengan tepat apa yang menyebabkan kemerosotan gaya domino ini, itulah sebabnya penting untuk bercakap tentang perasaan anda.

Dengan berkongsi perasaan anda dan melalui senario dan kenangan yang berbeza, anda sering memahami secara semula jadi dari mana emosi anda datang.


3 daripada 18

Anda terkena konjunktivitis.

Konjunktivitis atau mata merah jambu biasanya disebabkan oleh adenovirus, virus menjengkelkan yang boleh menyebabkan selsema, bronkitis dan sakit tekak. Walaupun biasanya tidak serius, konjunktivitis boleh merebak seperti kebakaran di sekolah dan tempat lain yang sesak. &ldquoZarah virus pada permukaan boleh kekal hidup selama kira-kira dua minggu,&rdquo kata Kim Le, MD, pakar oftalmologi kanak-kanak dengan Sistem Kesihatan Henry Ford di Detroit.

Konjunktivitis biasanya hilang dalam masa satu hingga dua minggu tanpa rawatan, tetapi jika anda mengalami gejala yang teruk, berbincang dengan doktor anda tentang ubat antibiotik atau antivirus. Sementara itu, cuba kompres sejuk untuk mengurangkan kegatalan, kompres hangat untuk melegakan bengkak, atau ubat titis mata untuk membantu mengatasi kerengsaan, kata Dr. Le.

Basuh cadar anda (terutamanya sarung bantal) dan tangan anda dengan kerap untuk mengelakkan penyebaran kuman.


Mencari Mesej dalam Gejala Demensia

Apabila ia datang untuk memahami gejala demensia, Kallmyer mengatakan bahawa terdapat had untuk apa yang boleh dilakukan oleh penjaga. "Kadang-kadang, tingkah laku seseorang yang mengalami demensia tidak akan bermakna," katanya. "Penyakit ini hanya memusnahkan sel otak mereka, dan tindakan mereka tidak mempunyai sajak atau alasan."

Tetapi pada masa lain, Kallmyer berkata, gejala demensia yang tidak rasional akan menyelubungi mesej yang boleh anda dekodkan. "Kami suka memikirkan semua tingkah laku sebagai bentuk komunikasi daripada seseorang yang mengalami demensia," katanya kepada WebMD. Mengambil masa untuk mentafsir dan memahami bukan sahaja boleh mendapatkan orang yang anda sayangi apa yang mereka perlukan, tetapi juga membawa anda lebih rapat. Walaupun hubungan yang pernah anda temui dengan orang yang anda sayangi akan pudar, anda mungkin menjalin hubungan yang baru dan berbeza tetapi masih bermakna.

John dan Mary Ann Becklenberg tidak dapat mengetahui masa depan mereka, tetapi buat masa ini mereka memberi tumpuan kepada apa yang mereka ada.

"Saya fikir kami sebenarnya berasa lebih dekat akibat penyakit ini," kata John Becklenberg, yang merupakan penjaga utama untuk isterinya. "Saya terpaksa memperlahankan sedikit masa dan mengambil lebih banyak masa dengannya."

Mary Ann Becklenberg bersyukur. "Penjaga benar-benar tidak mendapat penghormatan yang sepatutnya," katanya. "Mereka adalah wira penyakit yang tidak didendang seperti Alzheimer."

Dia juga mempunyai beberapa nasihat. "Walaupun menghadapi kesukaran, saya menggesa penjaga dan penghidap [demensia] untuk cuba mencari jenaka dalam hidup mereka," katanya. “John dan saya ketawa tentang sesuatu, dan ia membantu. Orang ramai perlu tahu itu.”

Sumber

Mary Ann Becklenberg, penasihat peringkat awal, Persatuan Alzheimer, Dyer, Ind.

John Becklenberg, Dyer, Ind.

Erin Heintz, pengarah bersekutu perhubungan awam, Persatuan Alzheimer.

Beth Kallmyer, MSW, pengarah perkhidmatan pelanggan untuk pejabat kebangsaan, Persatuan Alzheimer, Chicago.

Donna Schempp, pengarah program, Family Caregiver Alliance, San Francisco.

AARP: "Kekal Terhubung dengan Mereka yang Prihatin."

Perikatan Pengasuh Keluarga: "Panduan Pengasuh untuk Memahami Tingkah Laku Demensia," "Menjaga Orang Dewasa dengan Masalah Kognitif dan Ingatan."


Tanda-tanda

Sejuta peristiwa yang berbeza berlaku pada hari anda, dan tiada satu pun daripadanya menonjol kepada anda. Apabila peristiwa yang kelihatan tidak berbahaya tiba-tiba menarik perhatian anda dan membuat anda mempersoalkan sama ada ia adalah petanda daripada orang yang anda sayangi dalam semangat…mungkin memang begitu.

Sebelum ibu saudara suami saya meninggal dunia, dia memberitahu saya bahawa rama-rama adalah simbolnya untuk bebas daripada badan fizikal. Beberapa hari selepas dia meninggal dunia, saya sedang menonton rancangan televisyen di mana watak utamanya baru sahaja melahirkan anak, dan terserlah pada saya bahawa dinding di tapak semaian itu dicat dengan rama-rama. Mereka menamakan bayi itu Elle, yang merupakan singkatan untuk Elizabeth. Nama ibu saudara Mark ialah Elizabeth, dan saya tahu ini adalah cara dia bertanya khabar kepada kami.

Kebanyakan tanda adalah halus. Anda mungkin tidak akan mendapat pancaragam datang ke rumah anda dengan papan tanda yang berbunyi, "Ibu berkata hai!" Kemungkinan besar apabila anda memikirkan tentang ibu anda, gambarnya jatuh dari dinding, burung merpati dengan bulu putih terbang, seseorang memberi anda sejambak bunga kegemarannya, atau anda terjumpa sekeping kad daripadanya. anda akan terlupa tentang. Ia mungkin bukan tanda khusus yang anda minta, tetapi jika anda tiba-tiba tertanya-tanya sama ada ia adalah petanda dan memikirkan orang yang anda sayangi, itu adalah petanda.


Lelaki Ballerina

Temui Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo (The Trocks), sebuah syarikat lelaki yang selama 45 tahun telah menawarkan penonton minat mereka untuk balet klasik yang dicampur dengan komedi yang meriah. Dengan setiap langkah mereka menyindir bentuk seni mengikut jantina mereka.

Lelaki Ballerinaialah potret Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo (The Trocks), sebuah syarikat balet semua lelaki dan sensasi tarian antarabangsa. Selama lebih 45 tahun syarikat itu telah berkongsi gaya dan mesej kesamarataan, keterangkuman dan keadilan sosial mereka dengan khalayak di seluruh dunia. Lelaki itu mempersembahkan balet en pointe klasik dan secara seret, mencabar norma jantina tegar bentuk seni sambil mereka menggabungkan teknik yang ketat dengan komedi dan sindiran. Diilhamkan oleh Rusuhan Stonewall pada tahun 1969, syarikat itu didorong oleh semangat menentang dan keghairahan kreatif yang dicetuskan oleh pergerakan hak gay. Filem ini mengikuti lawatan The Trocks di Carolinas, pusat perjuangan berterusan untuk hak LGBTQ. Lelaki Ballerina menggabungkan temu bual asli dan rakaman persembahan kontemporari dan arkib untuk menceritakan sejarah syarikat yang luar biasa dan memuncak dengan persembahan The Trocks pada 2019 di konsert ulang tahun ke-50 Stonewall di SummerStage Central Park di New York City. Dalam kata-kata ballerina Kevin Garcia, “Setiap kali tirai dibuka, kami mewakili kemajuan untuk kesaksamaan. Kami hanya melakukannya dengan menari.”

Penerbitan Filem Merrywidow yang bekerjasama dengan American Masters Pictures dan ITVS. Diarahkan dan diterbitkan oleh Chana Gazit dan Martie Barylick. Michael Kantor ialah penerbit eksekutif Sarjana Amerika.

Gambar American Masters
Diasaskan pada 2016 oleh penerbit eksekutif Michael Kantor, American Masters Pictures ialah cetakan teater WNET untuk dokumentari yang diterbitkan bersama oleh Sarjana Amerika, siri biografi pemenang anugerah yang meraikan seni dan budaya kita. American Masters Pictures bekerjasama dengan pembuat filem, pengedar dan ejen jualan pada keluaran bukan siaran termasuk festival filem, teater, dalam talian, DVD, VOD dan OTT, dengan PBS sebagai penyiar eksklusif A.S. bagi semua filem sebagai sebahagian daripada Sarjana Amerika siri. Filem termasuk Miles Davis: Kelahiran Cool, N. Scott Momaday: Kata-kata dari Beruang, Toni Morrison: The Pieces I Am, Sammy Davis, Jr.: Saya Perlu Menjadi Saya, Bombshell: Kisah Hedy Lamarr, Itzhak, Norman Lear: Just Another Version of You, Maya Angelou: Dan Masih Saya Bangkit dan Garry Winogrand: Semua Perkara Boleh Difoto. Sejak tahun 1986, Sarjana Amerika telah menetapkan standard untuk profil filem dokumentari, memperoleh pujian kritis yang meluas: 28 Anugerah Emmy — termasuk 10 untuk Siri Bukan Fiksyen Cemerlang dan lima untuk Istimewa Bukan Fiksyen Cemerlang — 14 Peabodys, sebuah Oscar, tiga Grammy, dua Anugerah Persatuan Pengeluar dan banyak lagi. penghormatan lain. Siri ini adalah pengeluaran THIREEN PRODUCTIONS LLC untuk WNET.

Mengenai WNET
WNET ialah stesen PBS utama Amerika: syarikat induk THIRTEEN dan WLIW21 New York dan pengendali NJTV, rangkaian media awam seluruh negeri di New Jersey. Melalui inisiatif berbilang platform ALL ARTS baharunya, saluran penyiarannya, tiga perkhidmatan kabel (TIGA BELAS PBSKids, Create and World) dan tapak penstriman dalam talian, WNET membawakan pengaturcaraan seni, pendidikan dan hal ehwal awam yang berkualiti kepada lebih lima juta penonton setiap bulan. WNET menghasilkan dan mempersembahkan rangkaian luas siri PBS yang terkenal, termasuk NATURE, GREAT PERFORMANCES, AMERICAN MASTERS, PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND, dan program temu bual setiap malam AMANPOUR AND COMPANY. Selain itu, WNET menghasilkan banyak dokumentari, program kanak-kanak, dan tawaran berita dan budaya tempatan, serta inisiatif pelbagai platform menangani kemiskinan dan iklim. Melalui THIRTEEN Passport dan WLIW Passport, ahli stesen boleh menstrim baharu dan mengarkibkan pengaturcaraan THIREEN, WLIW dan PBS pada bila-bila masa, di mana-mana sahaja.

Pembiayaan pengeluaran episod asal disediakan oleh Jody dan John Arnhold, Emily Coward dan Raphael Ginsberg, dan Yayasan Jerome Robbins.

Sokongan untuk Sarjana Amerika disediakan oleh Corporation for Public Broadcasting, AARP, Rosalind P. Walter, Judith & Burton Resnick, The Cheryl & Philip Milstein family, Vital Projects Fund, Lillian Goldman Programming Endowment, The Blanche & Irving Laurie Foundation, Seton J. Melvin, Philip & Yayasan Janice Levin, Ellen & James S. Marcus, Yayasan André dan Elizabeth Kertész, Yayasan Ambrose Monell dan penonton televisyen awam.

♪ ♪ -Tutu, kasut pointe, glamor.

Ia sentiasa menarik perhatian saya.

Itu menarik perhatian saya kerana ada seni dan keindahan seperti itu.

♪ -Berada dalam syarikat itu, kami menolak had takrif yang dilakukan oleh lelaki.

Apa yang telah dilakukan oleh Ballets Trockadero selama bertahun-tahun telah mengubah tanggapan tentang apa yang indah dalam balet ini ke atas kepalanya dan membalikkannya supaya terdapat detik-detik dalam balet ini di mana anda hanya berkata, 'Wah!'

♪ ♪ ♪ -Apa yang dilakukan oleh Trocks benar-benar mengubah semua tradisi balet dan, pada masa yang sama, menerima semua tradisi balet.

-Semua yang kami lakukan adalah berlapis-lapis.

Segala-galanya mempunyai beberapa duluan dan detik sejarah.

Ia seperti meletakkan sejarah balet melalui pengisar.

Dan anda akan keluar dengan goncangan ini.

-15 minit ke puncak persembahan.

Ini adalah 15 minit ke 'Swan Lake.'

-Di atas kertas, apabila ia diiklankan, ia berkata, 'Syarikat balet komedi semua lelaki.'

Kami adalah Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo, tetapi orang ramai memanggil kami 'The Trocks', syarikat balet seret.

-Ini adalah 10 minit ke tempat.

Ini adalah 10 minit sebelum bahagian atas persembahan.

-Kami adalah pertunjukan balet, dan saya fikir aspek itu sebagai hiburan drag adalah jaring yang luas untuk mendedahkan balet kepada sekumpulan orang.

Penjagaan mereka dikecewakan melalui komedi.

♪ [ Ketawa ] ♪ Jadi orang datang yang peminat balet.

Orang ramai boleh membawa keluarga mereka.

-Kami adalah syarikat balet yang serius dengan latihan, dengan latihan, yang mengembara ke seluruh dunia hanya menari.

-Kami pergi ke mana-mana. Kami bukan hanya di New York.

Kami bukan sahaja di London atau Tokyo.

Kami di North Carolina. Kami di Texas Barat.

-The Trockadero melakukan banyak perkara untuk mempopularkan balet di negara yang masih belum mempercayainya.

Orang ramai faham, 'Jika kita boleh pergi ke balet, dan kita boleh ketawa, hei, ia tidak begitu teruk lagi.

Mungkin kita patut pergi melihat balet yang lain.'

-Mereka ini memutuskan 'Kami akan menari,' mengambil sesuatu yang sangat formal dan menggunakannya untuk memberikan kegembiraan kepada orang ramai. ♪ [ Ketawa ] . dan kegembiraan kepada diri mereka sendiri dan mencipta sesuatu yang merupakan satu bentuk penentangan.

♪ [ Ketawa ] 'Kami akan berseronok, dan orang akan menyayangi kami, dan kami gay.'

♪ -Misi syarikat semasa ia mula-mula dimulakan adalah untuk berseronok dan berseronok dengan balet klasik menggunakan drag sebagai sebahagian daripada komedi.

♪ -Kepanjangan umur Trockadero agak menakjubkan.

Trockadero benar-benar telah menjadi duta untuk jenaka fizikal dan untuk jenaka Amerika.

Ia sedikit di luar sana. Ia kadang-kadang kasar dan pelik.

Kami tidak pernah menyeksa sesiapa.

Maksud saya, kecuali orang yang membenci kita.

♪ [ Sorakan dan tepuk tangan ] ♪ [ Ketawa ] -Saya perlu beritahu anda, pada awal semua ini, ia adalah sejenis burung hantu.

Ia bukan seperti kami membentuk syarikat balet ini dan, anda tahu, di sini, kami telah ditubuhkan.

♪ [ Ketawa ] Kami tidak tahu apa yang akan berlaku.

Ini berlaku dengan banyak perkara yang difikirkan semula.

[ Ketawa ] ♪ Kejayaan sememangnya tidak difikirkan.

Kami tidak tahu itu akan berlaku.

Cuma, masanya betul-betul tepat.

Jadi, tahun 1970-an adalah saat yang tepat untuk kita menyerang.

-Jadi, ke dalam rebusan muncul Trocks.

[ Ketawa ] Adalah mustahil untuk membayangkan bahawa mungkin ada syarikat seperti Trocks sebelum ia ditubuhkan pada tahun 1974.

Agak sukar untuk mempercayai bahawa terdapat Trocks pada tahun 1974, tetapi ia adalah masa yang lebih luas, dan terdapat kemungkinan sesuatu yang melampaui batas seperti Trocks.

♪ -Pada tempoh kami datang, ia adalah semasa pergolakan selepas rusuhan Stonewall dan apabila adat istiadat sosial dan budaya berubah.

♪ Kami datang bersama, dan kami agak menggegarkan keadaan sedikit.

[Ketawa] -Saya keluar apabila saya berpindah ke New York.

Tetapi pada masa itu, anda tahu, pada akhir 60-an dan 70-an, keluar tidak seperti tahun 20-an atau 30-an atau pastinya abad ke-19, apabila tiada perkara seperti yang keluar, kerana Stonewall telah pun berlaku. .

-1969, 28 Jun, pada waktu awal pagi, polis menyerbu Stonewall Inn.

Terdapat begitu banyak mitos tentang apa yang berlaku di Stonewall.

Beberapa mitos itu disebabkan oleh liputan akhbar pada masa itu.

Tajuknya ialah 'Sarang Homo Diserbu, Ratu Lebah Gila Penyengat.'

Dan mereka menerangkan dalam artikel itu dan juga artikel tentang bagaimana terdapat garis tendangan yang berhadapan dengan polis.

Mereka adalah kanak-kanak yang tidak mengikut jantina.

Mereka tidak memanggil diri mereka begitu.

Dan bukannya melarikan diri dari barisan polis yang hanya berjalan kaki ke arah mereka, mereka membentuk barisan sepakan dan melaungkan, 'Kami adalah gadis Kampung. Kami memakai rambut kami dalam keriting.

Kami memakai dungare kami di atas lutut nelly kami.'

Dan terdapat satu talian lagi sebelum polis mendakwa mereka.

Jadi mereka adalah remaja yang berseronok dengan perbelanjaan polis, dan polis tidak tahan.

Stonewall adalah titik pencucuhan dalam pergerakan yang merebak ke seluruh negara dan kemudian ke seluruh dunia.

[ Orang ramai melaungkan tidak jelas ] -Tanpa rusuhan Stonewall, saya tidak fikir syarikat seperti Les Ballets Trockadero boleh bermula.

Stonewall membuka pintu dan membuat semua jenis persembahan boleh dilakukan.

♪ -Tahun 1970-an di New York dipanggil Letupan Tarian.

Anda tahu, terdapat syarikat balet dan syarikat tarian moden, syarikat kontemporari.

Sungguh, setiap blok lain, seseorang mempunyai loteng dan syarikat.

Dan Balet New York City adalah kuasa besar, dan ABT adalah kuasa besar.

Dan semua syarikat besar dari Eropah datang secara tetap ke New York.

Seluruh tempat itu hanya gila menari.

Terdapat begitu banyak syarikat.

[ Ketawa ] Jadi, dalam satu cara, kami sesuai dengan keseluruhan skema itu.

Mengapa tidak syarikat balet seret?

Anda tahu, kenapa tidak lelaki bertus?

Semua yang lain sedang berlaku. Kenapa tidak begitu?

♪ -Ia adalah sebahagian daripada keseluruhan dinding pasca-Stonewall.

'Kami akan membuat persembahan. Kami akan memakai apa yang kami mahu pakai.

Kami akan lakukan apa yang kami mahu lakukan.'

♪ -Tetapi melakukan apa sahaja yang berkaitan dengan gay pada tahun 1970-an, sama ada anda berniat untuk berpolitik atau tidak, itu adalah kenyataan politik.

Sama ada Trocks menganggap mereka melakukan sesuatu yang berpolitik atau tidak, ia pastinya tindakan politik, atau ia dianggap sedemikian.

♪ ♪ -Kali pertama saya melihat Trocks, saya berumur 12 tahun, dan reaksi saya melihat syurga terbuka.

♪ Dan saya hanya memandang ibu bapa saya, dan ia seperti, 'Itulah tempat yang sesuai untuk saya.'

♪ Saya rasa segala-galanya bermula apabila kita melakukan solek.

Saya mula masuk ke dalam gelembung saya sendiri, di mana Kevin diketepikan dan saya menjadi seorang ballerina.

♪ Syarikat ini memberi saya peluang untuk menjadi, akhirnya, Kevin tanpa sebarang dinding.

-Terdapat sesuatu yang benar-benar memperkasakan tentang persembahan dalam seretan.

♪ Dalam syarikat tradisional, anda akhirnya menari watak lelaki di belakang seorang gadis, hanya bergandingan, dan saya rasa itu tidak mencukupi untuk saya.

Saya selalu meletakkan kasut pointe di tepi, bersembunyi.

Kanak-kanak perempuan secara klasik dilatih untuk pergi en pointe apabila mereka berumur 11 tahun.

Saya memakai kasut pointe pada kira-kira 22 tahun.

Jadi badan saya tidak bersedia untuk itu.

♪ Ia menyakitkan, dan ia tidak pernah benar-benar menjadi lebih baik, tetapi ada saat apabila badan anda benar-benar terbiasa dengannya dan anda tidak merasakannya lagi.

Dan itulah saat-saat terbaik.

♪ Saya rasa apabila saya memakai kasut pointe, keseluruhan jajaran badan saya berbeza.

Saya boleh bergerak lebih seperti ballerina.

♪ Anda perlu mempunyai kawalan, keseimbangan, penghalusan tertentu yang anda tidak rasakan di atas rata.

♪ Jika anda boleh mengatasi kesengsaraan itu, anda benar-benar dapat merasakan ada tenaga yang indah ini berlaku dalam badan anda.

♪ Anda berasa seperti penari yang berbeza.

♪ Apabila saya menari peranan wanita, saya tidak cuba menjadi seorang wanita, jika anda mahu katakan.

Saya cuba menjadi watak yang saya bawakan.

Saya benar-benar cuba menyalurkan semua ballerina yang saya nantikan dan semua perasaan yang boleh digambarkan oleh ballerina ini apabila dia menari peranan itu.

♪ Apabila saya Permaisuri Swan, saya tidak cuba untuk menjadi seorang wanita yang bermain sebagai Odette atau seorang lelaki yang berpakaian seperti wanita yang memainkan peranan itu, kerana itu banyak.

Itu banyak yang perlu difikirkan.

Saya hanya cuba untuk benar-benar memikirkan watak yang saya menari.

[ Ketawa ] ♪ Odette ialah seorang puteri dan di bawah sihir Rothbart, dan dia menjadi angsa.

Anda perlu menggambarkan perasaan seperti ini terperangkap ke dalam badan orang lain.

[ Esakan ] Atau tidak mampu menjadi diri sendiri.

[ Ketawa ] Dan itulah perasaan yang saya pasti semua orang boleh kaitkan dalam beberapa cara.

♪ Dan itulah yang berkesan apabila kita benar-benar, anda tahu, diri kita sendiri.

[ Ketawa ] ♪ Ia adalah peranan yang dipandang tinggi oleh setiap penari, dan, ya, ia adalah tokoh penting dalam balet.

Siapa yang tidak suka 'Swan Lake'? Siapa yang tidak ingat Ratu Angsa?

[ Ketawa ] Terdapat banyak jangkaan walaupun dalam syarikat biasa.

Semua orang datang untuk menonton Ratu Angsa.

Jadi saya mempunyai banyak untuk bekerja, untuk menyampaikan, kerana ia adalah baik untuk menjadi Swan Queen, tetapi ia adalah baik untuk menjadi Swan Queen.

♪ [ Tepuk Tangan ] -Dalam syarikat seperti kami, yang merupakan syarikat ciptaan sendiri, tidak ada institusi di belakangnya.

Anda tahu, apabila kami memulakan Trockadero, kami baru mengisytiharkan diri kami sebagai syarikat balet.

Kami tidak melalui 'Pergi.' Kami tidak singgah di Park Place.

Kami hanya berkata, 'Di sini kami,' dan saya baru sahaja mengisytiharkan diri saya sebagai ballerina prima.

Saya tidak mempunyai kerjaya menari sama sekali.

Saya hanya berkata, 'Ini dia. Saya seorang ballerina prima.'

Dan saya diterima begitu.

Jadi agak pelik apabila kami muncul di tempat kejadian dan kami segera diterima.

Banyak pertubuhan tarian muckety-muck tidak semestinya menyukai kami.

Mereka beranggapan apa yang kami lakukan adalah dahsyat dan menghina serta salah.

Tetapi sebenarnya bukan itu yang kami lakukan.

Kami bersedia untuk meraikan balet dan berkata, 'Ini adalah perkara yang paling hebat di dunia, dan ia boleh menjadi sedikit parodi.'

♪ Semua perkara dalam 'Giselle' -- anda tahu, Wilis, gadis mati berlari-lari di tanah perkuburan pada waktu malam, 'Swan Lake,' Putera jatuh cinta dengan seekor burung dan membawanya pulang kepada ibu untuk berkata, 'Saya 'ingin berkahwin dengannya' -- anda tahu, semua perkara ini sememangnya matang untuk parodi.

♪ [ Ketawa ] Nah, sebaik sahaja kami mempunyai syarikat balet, kami perlu mempunyai nama untuk semua penari, kerana kami tidak boleh muncul begitu sahaja, anda tahu, 'Tom Smith menari Odette malam ini.'

[ Ketawa ] Dan pada masa itu, semua syarikat balet yang serius ini, semua orang perlu mempunyai nama Rusia.

Jadi kami fikir, 'Nah, kami Trockadero.

Kami akan membuat sejenis nama parodi.'

Jadi saya menjadi Olga Tchikaboumskaya.

Dan kemudian ada seorang lagi penari bernama Ida Neversayneva.

Ini hanya gila, benar-benar gila.

Ada seorang lelaki yang sangat gempal -- kami memanggilnya Plushinskaya.

Semua inspirasi kami dan semua sikap ballerina datang dari balet Rusia lama.

Jadi kami mencipta seluruh dunia ini.

Dari saat anda berjalan di teater dan mula membaca program, terdapat seluruh dunia.

Kadang-kadang sebelum tirai dibuka, anda boleh mendengar penonton di hadapan, dan kami mendengar orang ramai mula menggerutu dan ketawa dan ketawa, dan anda boleh tahu -- dan seseorang akan tergelak -- anda boleh tahu mereka sedang membaca nama.

Dan kemudian kami akan sentiasa mempunyai pengumuman sebelum tirai, 'Tolong -- tiada mentol.

Ia mengingatkan para ballerina kepada Revolusi.'

[ Ketawa ] Jadi kami cuba menyalurkan ballerina kuno itu.

Anda tahu, ia sangat comel, ia sangat over-the-top -- kening besar, mata besar, banyak kohl di sekeliling mata.

Ini semua jenis lakonan filem senyap.

Kami boleh meletakkan diri kami dalam barisan balet dari abad ke-18 hingga sekarang.

Kita boleh meletakkan diri kita dalam arka itu.

-By men coming in and dancing en pointe, a lot of questions were raised about things that the ballet world had thought for centuries.

The ballerina had always been put up on a pedestal -- that essence of beauty, the perfect body.

And we were coming along and saying 'You can do Swan Queen with a short, fat, black man, and it's still realistic and there's still a reason to it.'

The role is still the same.

It's just the visual is different.

Tony had worked with the American Negro Ballet before.

There had been other black ballerinas in the Ballets Russes and in major companies, but there had never been, as far as I know, a black Swan Queen.

So when he joined the Trocks, having a black prima ballerina was another first.

-Tony was a large black man in a completely white, female world of ballet, which is what the ideal was.

And so when he came on stage, I mean, people would gasp -- really gasp.

And for the audience, it pushed the envelope even more.

'Okay, we're gonna be all these guys in tutus, we're gonna be in drag, and on top of that, some of us are gonna be black.

-We came along and said, 'Why not?'

And they got a different perspective on both physical beauty and the physical energy that it took to do the ballets.

♪ ♪ -Another bill that was introduced last week would change the definition of marriage in South Carolina.

-We don't really feel like there is a reason for South Carolina to try to. -A group of South Carolina lawmakers are working on a bill that would rename same-sex marriage 'Parody Marriage.'

-It's called the Marriage and Constitution Restoration Act.

It would prohibit the state from respecting, endorsing, or recognizing any parody marriage.

-A newly passed bill in North Carolina that has been labeled the most extreme anti-LGBT measure in the country.

-We were just in a town called San Angelo, Texas, and one of the stagehands had to move five hours away from where he lived because he got shot for just being gay.

That just really broke my heart.

-On the main stage, the category is 'Wigs on Wigs on Wigs.'

-And may the best all-star win!

-Oh, my God, isn't everything better with wings?

-RuPaul's kind of like a gay Oprah.

-I think he put drag on the map for, you know, a whole community of people.

-I think the world still perceives drag as just a man in a dress or a man impersonating, but especially today, it's evolved to just so many different facets.

-It's kind of a way to show other people that they should be who they want to be or could be who's inside of them.

RuPaul always says, 'We're all born naked, and the rest is drag.'

We're all humans, and we all put on how we want to be perceived.

♪ -The first time my mom saw me with the company, she was okay with it at first.

You know, it's art, whatever.

And then she saw me in a picture where I went out in drag, and she asked me, she was like, 'Do you want to be a woman?'

You know, she was confused. She didn't understand.

But I never really connected to this idea of what it was like to be a man or what it meant to be a man.

I don't feel like a woman. I'm myself.

And I express myself in however it comes to me.

-Okay, so, we'll start the laundry pile.

-You know, it's a little Judy Garland-inspired, 1960s.

-Are there shoulder pads? -There shoulder pads.

'Cause I have sloping shoulders, so I'm gonna need some support.

And then, you know, you add a nice, like, black trouser with a little beaded fringe on the side. -Speaking of fringe, did I show you this vest that my grandpa passed down to me?

-Oh, my God. He gave you fringe benefits.

[ Laughs ] -Well, my dad was there for Christmas and got to go through his closet, and then he, like, sent me all these pictures, and he's like, 'Yeah, you know, you would love this.'

I'm like, 'You don't think I've been thinking about this for years, how I'm gonna get into my grandfather's closet and get all of that?'

My dad's an athlete, so his gift to me as a parent was giving me the opportunity to be able to play sports.

These are things he didn't have growing up.

And so I was really confronted with seeing all of these other boys who were a certain way and I was not like that.

♪ ♪ Growing up, not fitting in, and wondering why I didn't like to play football or basketball, and my dad was the coach of everything that I played.

♪ Track was okay because track and field was mixed, so there were girls there, so I could hang out with the girls.

♪ Being able to be in a company like this, where I can freely be black and gay and a dancer on stage and be good at it is a great thing for younger people to see.

I am fortunate enough to show that this is possible.

♪ ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ ♪ [ Applause ] -Before we continue, so that he can also breathe, have you all seen Ballets Trockadero?

Do you all know what Ballets Trockadero is about?

What is very interesting about this piece, 'The Dying Swan,' is that it shows a little bit of all the different aspects of Ballets Trockadero.

We sometimes even change steps.

But one thing that we keep is the meaning of the piece.

We are still doing 'The Dying Swan.'

So there's a little bit of drama, there is that feeling, there is the presence.

Just because we do things before that are funny doesn't mean that the substance of 'The Dying Swan' is not there.

You still feel the sadness, so that has to remain.

♪ [ Laughter ] -Our first theatre in New York was at a small loft theatre on West 14th Street in the middle of the Meatpacking District.

Funny thing is, you'd look out the window, and there'd be huge lines of limousines with people coming in in furs and long gowns.

They had been up at Lincoln Center earlier watching Ballet Theatre or New York City ballet.

And it was a shock, I think, for some of our clientele, too, but they came.

-We danced in New York, you know, exclusively in our early years, but once we got to be sort of a thing in New York, we realized we wanted to do more than just dance in a loft.

I'm not sure touring was in our heads, but a lot of agents approached us, and they said, 'We will manage you guys.

We'll put you out there, but we won't put you in our brochure and we won't promote you.'

It was maybe an anti-gay thing.

Maybe they thought -- and I think this is probably not a bad thought -- that we would damage their serious concert artists.

You know, you can't have Dame Myra so-and-so at the harpsichord and the drag ballet on the next page.

Then we took a meeting with a man named Sheldon Soffer, and Sheldon Soffer, who was a very distinguished agent, Sheldon, not only did he put us in the brochure, he said, 'I'm gonna put you on the of the brochure.'

And he did what no other manager in New York would do -- he honored us for who we were.

And I think that outraged a lot of people, but he sure did get us a lot of tour dates.

But the very first tour date we had was South Bend, Indiana.

And if you can imagine in those times, we were really frightened.

'How are we gonna take this show, which is a total downtown phenomenon, and move this to South Bend, Indiana?

What is gonna happen to us?'

We were just sure that, you know, nobody would really get this outside the hothouse world of ballet in New York.

When we left New York, we said goodbye to all of our friends.

We were sure we would never come back -- they'd kill us out there on the road.

And so we landed in South Bend, Indiana.

They had just built this beautiful performing arts center.

We thought, 'Oh, my God, we're gonna desecrate the building, and they're gonna run us out of town on a rail, and it's gonna be awful.'

But we went to the theatre, made up, and we did the show, and they loved us.

You know, this is a strict Midwestern audience.

We started touring, and people just took us right away.

Maybe we were living in our own little planet, because, you know, anybody who tours understands this -- you don't see anything of the city that you're in.

You see your hotel and you see your dressing room and you see the stage.

And, again, we were never out in our tutus, so we weren't where someone would attack us.

As far as I can remember, nobody ever threw anything at us.

-We went to strange places.

We played little towns that, yes, we were kind of afraid to go to.

Occasionally, we would end up somewhere and we would be staying at the motel by the truck stop, and we're going, 'This doesn't quite look like where we want to be.'

But once the audience came in and started having a good time, they didn't care, because it was funny dancing, and that, they could deal with.

[ Laughter ] [ Laughter ] -There's no question that people who came to the Trocks who laughed, who really thought we were a great show, also found that gay people don't all bite.

Our show was just so benign and it was so much fun.

[ Laughter ] And there was no message of bitterness or hate.

And I think, in a way, people said, 'You know, these gay people aren't so bad after all.

Grandma loved it. The kids loved it.'

And I think they did have a different impression of gay people.

♪ [ Laughter ] We just did our show, you know, and then we went home and watched television.

♪ [ Laughter ] -All my dance teachers, when I told them what I was doing, they said, 'That's a career-killer.

You will not have a dance career after this is over.

You've just destroyed your dance career.'

I was working with two dancers from the Graham Company.

They had their own company.

And I was learning this piece, and it was all Graham.

And I thought it was supposed to be tongue-in-cheek.

So in the rehearsal, you know, I'm doing all this. ♪ Da-da-da-da, da-da-da, hunh, hunh ♪ and all this absurd -- and on my knees and all this, like, falling to the floor.

And he stopped the rehearsal, and he said, 'What are you doing?'

And I said, 'I thought this was supposed to be funny.'

And there was like this, 'Oooh.'

And people, like, cleared the rehearsal studio, and he said, 'It's not funny.'

So, on my way home, I thought, 'There's something that I do when I dance that puts all this stuff together, and the only logical place is Trockadero.'

[ Laughter ] ♪ Getting hired by Trockadero fulfilled how could I dance and carry on this tradition of slapstick, insane situations, and make the audience laugh.

[ Laughter ] ♪ -For some reason, I seem to have a talent to make ballet funny.

♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ When the Trocks first started, I spent a couple of months in the Soviet Union watching ballet.

I had to join some communist organization in order to get in.

And that's all I did. I threw my card away after that.

And in a funny way, that's where the Trockadero was born.

[ Laughter ] I saw a kind of way people danced in the old Soviet Union that was so old-fashioned.

Nobody danced like that anymore.

But that kind of had a lot to do with me understanding what ballet used to look like and that it could be funny.

And so as a choreographer, I was always seeking to dive down past the steps into some cultural information that would make a ballet appear funny to a modern audience.

That's why the Trockadero always looks sort of over-the-top -- because we were dancing in a way that people stopped dancing 30 years before.

♪ So, as a choreographer, I kind of always looked at history and I looked at precedent and I looked at what people had done before, and I wanted to sort of bring back things that had died.

I mean, it's like trying to bring back high-button shoes, I suppose, and I thought living in the past was interesting and that I could make it funny.

What could I do to turn it and twist it?

And I was always looking at the mechanics of ballet and how could I use the mechanics to make it humorous.

I mean, this became the way the Trockadero performed.

And so everything we did was real information.

We didn't have to make a lot of those jokes up.

They were already there, just waiting to be shown.

[ Laughter ] And so, a lot of people would say I don't honor it and I don't value it, but actually, I really do and I really did.

And that's the only reason it became really funny -- because it was from a place of honor, from a place of love.

♪ -If it feels really sticky now, it's because I was told to Coke it, 'cause it was really slippery before.

It's like stepping on Saran Wrap stretched over a tile.

-Sometimes you're performing on cement, sometimes you're performing on wood, sometimes you're performing on a marble floor.

-You performed on grass? -Grass.

You know, the green stuff that grows?

[ Laughs ] ♪ -What we do is very rigorous.

We do class in the morning, we go into rehearsal, We do the show.

♪ -Boysie, what are you doing?

-Curtain in five minutes, and then we will be starting on time.

[ Indistinct talking ] ♪ -[ Speaking Italian ] Are you doing the first variation?

Would you like to do it for us?

The way casting works is, I mean, first of all, everybody has to be able to do the technical parts, so when I started to become director, I changed the casting so there would be multiple casts for all the leading roles.

I thought 'There's enough for everybody.'

So everyone got to do something, so you didn't have a bunch of seething people, you know, waiting for someone to leave or to die so that they could get the role.

And that actually was instrumental in changing the atmosphere of the company because everyone started rooting for each other.

♪ Ballet is a classical art, and so when you have classical art, there are rules that one must follow -- same sizes, shape of the foot, size of the head.

But this is not what we do.

We're a comedy company, so a comedy company works better with diversity.

♪ -Comedy tends to work better if it's a little fast, so we want everything to be as fast as possible.

Sometimes the newer dancers have a really hard time with that.

And my line is that, 'The music is never too fast.

Head to the left! Head to the left!

♪ Did you ever get into a fight?

-So, what you need to do is just walk towards him.

Just like that, and you don't need to do anything else.

-When you first join the company, probably you don't have any experience with comedy, but then you develop it over time.

-And you get some mentoring from the director.

He tells you, 'Think about it this way.

Has this ever happened to you?'

♪ Then I'm able to use that, and then I take it on stage, and then -- let's say, the entrance to 'Swan Lake.'

It took me a very, very long time to get the audience to laugh at my first entrance.

If you don't get that smile just cheesy enough, oh, my God, this is gonna be really hard.

[ Applause ] If they don't laugh, then I know I have to work much harder on my comedy throughout the rest of the show to get them on board.

♪ No matter who you are, you can find your own inner comedian.

♪ [ Laughter ] -Some people, you actually need to coach into a specific way.

Because they don't really understand the point of view or the sensibility.

And some people, you need to let alone because they got it.

[ Laughter ] And if you try to fine-tune it, they lose that.

-Tory informed me that he wanted me to run through the lead in 'Paquita.'

-He came in, and he knew the entire thing.

No one had to say anything to him.

That was somebody where you have to stay out of their way.

♪ -That was lovely, Philip. -That was excellent.

-When it comes to classical choreography, I am able to pick up very quickly and memorize it very quickly because of my autism.

-My autism helped the ballet because I was able to have that lock in focus, being able to let my obsession obsess.

Pas de chat, plié, and in and in.

-I didn't know that I was autistic until I was 10 years old.

-I had so much expression inside, but it couldn't come out.

My thoughts, my feeling, speaking -- almost every aspect was locked.

I was teased every day, made fun of every day, hit every day.

There were people always trying to make me feel ashamed of me being myself, me living, me being a person.

Ballet was the only place where I was able to dry off the tears.

[ Indistinct talking ] ♪ ♪ -Alright, guys, take off your shoes.

When you're ready, we're gonna go say hello to Mr. Philip, our ballet teacher.

This class, even though they have their own dance therapy classes at their school. -Aah!

-You guys can have a seat on the floor while we're waiting for class to start.

. they rarely get to do full-on ballet therapy class.

So this is when. Just relax.

. they can really get excited and they can really go for it and they can really just let loose and enjoy themselves.

I definitely see myself in those kids.

Are we ready for the next part?

I see the wonder. I see the no filter.

Now we're gonna go into third position.

Can I see your first position?

I was very lucky to get to teach at a very early age.

And I fell in love with it.

Jump, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 12.

I would be very happy to see in this class these kids, of course, with a smile on their face.

And with kids of all different ranges and levels, what I'm looking for is the children's natural sense of sync, which is meaning we're feeling each other's energy and we're moving all as one, trying to all be cohesive together.

A lot of people think autistic children cannot be cohesive as a group together, but they are able to do this, to most people's surprise.

Now hold on to the barre and go into your plié. Keep this straight the whole time.

Doing these classes with them, it really helps not only for them to understand their body coordination and their own strengths. Sangat bagus.

Plié and lift up, up, up, up.

. their own vulnerabilities, their own self-confidence.

But it's good for me because it helps me to always remember where I came from.

-He was number 1. -You were number 1?

So let's do one number 1 again.

I needed help to get through this.

Now that I don't really need that help anymore, it's up to me to do that, to give the help back.

So that's why I do it. That's why I teach these kids.

Can we go on those high tiptoes?

Dan. It's amazing. It's really amazing.

-Ballet is a profession. It's a calling.

You know, Balanchine once said, famously, 'I don't want people who would like to dance.

-You have to give yourself up in order to serve the art.

Ballet is so big and it's so all-encompassing.

Even if it's drag ballet, even if it's comedy ballet, even if you're joining the Trockadero, your problems have to take a back seat to how you can serve the choreography and how you can serve the audience.

And in a funny way, this has a great way of healing people.

♪ -Towards the end of my career as a Trock, in '82, '83, we had gone that year from somewhere in Texas to -- we went from hot to cold, and two people in the company got really sick.

My roommate at the time, Sanson Candelaria, woke up one night in Chicago -- this was in winter -- dripping wet.

He said to me, 'I'm gonna die. I'm dying. I'm gonna die.'

And I said, 'You're not gonna die. Saya tidak tahu.

You have some kind of fe-- I don't know.

Nothing dawned on me what was going on.

And then we were in San Francisco, and I did see this article in the paper about this gay cancer.

And then other people in the company started to get sick.

-There was a period when four or five of our dancers were dying of AIDS.

I would be dancing with them, and months later, they were gone.

Sanson -- I had danced with Sanson as my Swan Queen for years, and all of a sudden, I didn't have Sanson anymore.

-I hired Sanson when I started the company, and he was clearly heads above any of the other dancers.

He was the first really, really good dancer that joined the Trockadero.

He was the first one in the rehearsal, the first one in the dressing room, and the last one to leave at night.

Everything he did had a level of seriousness and professionalism, you know, that the rest of us sort of lacked.

But he was very funny, too.

More than anybody else in the company, he loved to dance.

-I remember this story that Sanson had just gotten out of the hospital and he was well enough to do 'Swan Lake.'

And there's this moment in 'Swan Lake' where the Swan Queen is all the way down and then the prince picks up the Swan Queen and they're gonna do their dance.

And, um, that moment. [ Voice breaking ] . it was breathtaking.

-Sanson died midway through the worst of the AIDS crisis.

He lost so much -- lost his strength, lost his stamina.

♪ -That the company kept going is just amazing in itself, because, like every other dance company, so many people got sick.

Um. Those people that passed, especially Sanson, they are with me all the time -- all the time.

♪ -None of us thought the company would last.

The company didn't think it would last, and didn't think it would last.

You have to have faith in something.

If you don't have any faith, you don't have anything.

Where's your refuge in life?

Doesn't have to be religion.

For a lot of people, it's dancing.

A lot of companies really have kind of lost that faith in the thing itself and what it means.

[ Laughs ] But, oddly, the Trockadero has not.

What's happened over this 45 years is now, in a funny way, the Trockadero is the keeper of the flame.

♪ -Are you doing soft shoes, Josh?

If we're gonna do this, we're gonna do it.

This is about tenacity, perseverance.

That's really what the American spirit is all about.

-♪ La -Aah! That was a mistake! Itu adalah satu kesilapan.

-[ Russian accent ] Good evening, ladies and gentlemen.

In accordance with the greatest tradition of the Russian ballet, there will be changes in this evening's program.

I'm really excited about performing in celebration to Stonewall.

We are charged. We're ready. Yeah.

We regret to announce the absence in this evening's program of Natasha Notgoodenoff.

[ Laughter ] For us performing here at Summerstage during Pride, I feel that sometimes we forget how things were before.

But we'll make the best of making this night memorable.

We wish to remind you that the use of cellular phones, the taking of photographs, and video recording are strictly prohibited.

Rattling noises and sudden bursts of light tend to remind our more fragile ballerinas of terrible Bolshevik gunfire.

[ Laughter ] -There goes Julie Andrews after too many martinis.

-Trockadero is such an institution within the gay community.

-And I feel really proud to be a part of something like that.

[ Cheers and applause in distance ] -They liked that one, didn't they?

-And to be part of the celebration, this is one of the most special moments of my dance career.

-Stonewall was a unique moment in New York City.

What made Stonewall special was that people could dance there.

Over and over again, I heard people talk about how important dancing was and why shutting down that particular bar and making it impossible for these young people to dance infuriated them.

This was the one place where they felt safe, one place where they could dance, one place where they could be close and do what everyone else did.

[ Cheers and applause ] -Thank you, Central Park. We love you.

♪ -What I love about the Trocks deciding to do 'Stars and Stripes Forever' for the 50th anniversary of Stonewall is that it's so in keeping with who they are.

And to do it in Central Park, where many of the great performances of all time have been done, and they did it in plain sight, I love that.

It's joyous fun that speaks to what it means to be an American in an all-inclusive America -- and, I like to think, a America.

♪ -'Stars and Stripes' is Balanchine's love letter to America.

He loved America, and he did a lot of ballets that had to do with the kind of 1950s patriotic feelings.

It's the America that defeated Hitler.

It's that America that he was celebrating.

It's more like a Fourth of July message.

♪ Well, the Trocks' 'Stars and Stripes' is a love letter, too.

But in a way, it's a reverse love letter, because what it means is America has taken in the Trocks as part of our culture.

[ Cheers and applause ] ♪ The Trockadero was a militant organization because we were breaking all of the statues.

We were smashing all the icons.

Now, mind you, we did it all nicely and it was all done with culture and sophistication -- sort of.


The Science of Crying

M ichael Trimble, a behavioral neurologist with the unusual distinction of being one of the world&rsquos leading experts on crying, was about to be interviewed on a BBC radio show when an assistant asked him a strange question: How come some people don&rsquot cry at all?

The staffer went on to explain that a colleague of hers insisted he never cries. She&rsquod even taken him to see Les Misérables, certain it would jerk a tear or two, but his eyes stayed dry. Trimble was stumped. He and the handful of other scientists who study human crying tend to focus their research on wet eyes, not dry ones, so before the broadcast began, he set up an email [email protected]&mdashand on the air asked listeners who never cry to contact him. Within a few hours, Trimble had received hundreds of messages.

&ldquoWe don&rsquot know anything about people who don&rsquot cry,&rdquo Trimble says now. In fact, there&rsquos also a lot scientists don&rsquot know&mdashor can&rsquot agree on&mdashabout people who do cry. Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears &ldquopurposeless,&rdquo and nearly 150 years later, emotional crying remains one of the human body&rsquos more confounding mysteries. Though some other species shed tears reflexively as a result of pain or irritation, humans are the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings. In babies, tears have the obvious and crucial role of soliciting attention and care from adults. But what about in grownups? That&rsquos less clear. It&rsquos obvious that strong emotions trigger them, but why?

There&rsquos a surprising dearth of hard facts about so fundamental a human experience. Scientific doubt that crying has any real benefit beyond the physiological&mdashtears lubricate the eyes&mdashhas persisted for centuries. Beyond that, researchers have generally focused their attention more on emotions than on physiological processes that can appear to be their by-products: &ldquoScientists are not interested in the butterflies in our stomach, but in love,&rdquo writes Ad Vingerhoets, a professor at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and the world&rsquos foremost expert on crying, in his 2013 book, Why Only Humans Weep.

But crying is more than a symptom of sadness, as Vingerhoets and others are showing. It&rsquos triggered by a range of feelings&mdashfrom empathy and surprise to anger and grief&mdashand unlike those butterflies that flap around invisibly when we&rsquore in love, tears are a signal that others can see. That insight is central to the newest thinking about the science of crying.

Darwin wasn&rsquot the only one with strong opinions about why humans cry. By some calculations, people have been speculating about where tears come from and why humans shed them since about 1,500 B.C. For centuries, people thought tears originated in the heart the Old Testament describes tears as the by-product of when the heart&rsquos material weakens and turns into water, says Vingerhoets. Later, in Hippocrates&rsquo time, it was thought that the mind was the trigger for tears. A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions&mdashespecially love&mdashheated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down. The heart vapor would then rise to the head, condense near the eyes and escape as tears.

Finally, in 1662, a Danish scientist named Niels Stensen discovered that the lacrimal gland was the proper origin point of tears. That&rsquos when scientists began to unpack what possible evolutionary benefit could be conferred by fluid that springs from the eye. Stensen&rsquos theory: Tears were simply a way to keep the eye moist.

Few scientists have devoted their studies to figuring out why humans weep, but those who do don&rsquot agree. In his book, Vingerhoets lists eight competing theories. Some are flat-out ridiculous, like the 1960s view that humans evolved from aquatic apes and tears helped us live in saltwater. Other theories persist despite lack of proof, like the idea popularized by biochemist William Frey in 1985 that crying removes toxic substances from the blood that build up during times of stress.

Evidence is mounting in support of some new, more plausible theories. One is that tears trigger social bonding and human connection. While most other animals are born fully formed, humans come into the world vulnerable and physically unequipped to deal with anything on their own. Even though we get physically and emotionally more capable as we mature, grownups never quite age out of the occasional bout of helplessness. &ldquoCrying signals to yourself and other people that there&rsquos some important problem that is at least temporarily beyond your ability to cope,&rdquo says Jonathan Rottenberg, an emotion researcher and professor of psychology at the University of South Florida. &ldquoIt very much is an outgrowth of where crying comes from originally.&rdquo

Scientists have also found some evidence that emotional tears are chemically different from the ones people shed while chopping onions&mdashwhich may help explain why crying sends such a strong emotional signal to others. In addition to the enzymes, lipids, metabolites and electrolytes that make up any tears, emotional tears contain more protein. One hypothesis is that this higher protein content makes emotional tears more viscous, so they stick to the skin more strongly and run down the face more slowly, making them more likely to be seen by others.

Tears also show others that we&rsquore vulnerable, and vulnerability is critical to human connection. &ldquoThe same neuronal areas of the brain are activated by seeing someone emotionally aroused as being emotionally aroused oneself,&rdquo says Trimble, a professor emeritus at University College London. &ldquoThere must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when the tear became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another. Actually being able to cry emotionally, and being able to respond to that, is a very important part of being human.&rdquo

A less heartwarming theory focuses on crying&rsquos usefulness in manipulating others. &ldquoWe learn early on that crying has this really powerful effect on other people,&rdquo Rottenberg says. &ldquoIt can neutralize anger very powerfully,&rdquo which is part of the reason he thinks tears are so integral to fights between lovers&mdashparticularly when someone feels guilty and wants the other person&rsquos forgiveness. &ldquoAdults like to think they&rsquore beyond that, but I think a lot of the same functions carry forth,&rdquo he says.

A small study in the journal Sains that was widely cited&mdashand widely hyped by the media&mdashsuggested that tears from women contained a substance that inhibited the sexual arousal of men. &ldquoI won&rsquot pretend to be surprised that it generated all the wrong headlines,&rdquo says Noam Sobel, one of the study&rsquos authors and a professor of neurobiology at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Tears might be lowering sexual arousal&mdashbut the bigger story, he thinks, is that they might be reducing aggression, which the study didn&rsquot look at. Men&rsquos tears may well have the same effect. He and his group are currently wading through the 160-plus molecules in tears to see if there&rsquos one responsible.

What all of this means for people who don&rsquot cry is a question researchers are now turning to. If tears are so important for human bonding, are people who never cry perhaps less socially connected? That&rsquos what preliminary research is finding, according to clinical psychologist Cord Benecke, a professor at the University of Kassel in Germany. He conducted intimate, therapy-style interviews with 120 individuals and looked to see if people who didn&rsquot cry were different from those who did. He found that noncrying people had a tendency to withdraw and described their relationships as less connected. They also experienced more negative aggressive feelings, like rage, anger and disgust, than people who cried.

More research is needed to determine whether people who don&rsquot cry really are different from the rest of us, and some is soon to come: those emailers who heard Trimble on the radio that morning in 2013 are now the subjects of the first scientific study of people with such a tendency.

Virtually no evidence exists that crying comes with any positive effects on health. Yet the myth persists that it&rsquos an emotional and physical detox, &ldquolike it&rsquos some kind of workout for your body,&rdquo Rottenberg says. One analysis looked at articles about crying in the media&mdash140 years&rsquo worth&mdashand found that 94% described it as good for the mind and body and said holding back tears would result in the opposite. &ldquoIt&rsquos kind of a fable,&rdquo says Rottenberg. &ldquoThere&rsquos not really any research to support that.&rdquo

Also overblown is the idea that crying is always followed by relief. &ldquoThere&rsquos an expectation that we feel better after we cry,&rdquo says Randy Cornelius, a professor of psychology at Vassar College. &ldquoBut the work that&rsquos been done on this indicates that, if anything, we don&rsquot feel good after we cry.&rdquo When researchers show people a sad movie in a laboratory and then measure their mood immediately afterward, those who cry are in worse moods than those who don&rsquot.

But other evidence does back the notion of the so-called good cry that leads to catharsis. One of the most important factors, it seems, is giving the positive effects of crying&mdashthe release&mdashenough time to sink in. When Vingerhoets and his colleagues showed people a tearjerker and measured their mood 90 minutes later instead of right after the movie, people who had cried were in a better mood than they had been before the film. Once the benefits of crying set in, he explains, it can be an effective way to recover from a strong bout of emotion.

Modern crying research is still in its infancy, but the mysteries of tears&mdashand the recent evidence that they&rsquore far more important than scientists once believed&mdashdrive Vingerhoets and the small cadre of tear researchers to keep at it. &ldquoTears are of extreme relevance for human nature,&rdquo says Vingerhoets. &ldquoWe cry because we need other people. So Darwin,&rdquo he says with a laugh, &ldquowas totally wrong.&rdquo

This is an abridged version of an article that appears in the March 07, 2016 issue of TIME.


The Science Behind A 14-Day Quarantine After Possible COVID-19 Exposure

A sign on the M8 motorway last week in Glasgow, Scotland.

Jeff J. Mitchell/Getty Images

To stop the spread of the coronavirus, health officials have a favorite refrain: After being in a city or region where there have been a lot of COVID-19 cases, spend 14 days in quarantine even if you feel perfectly fine — don't leave your house. Coming from New York? 14-day quarantine. Arriving in Hawaii? 14-day quarantine. Been in Italy or China or Iran recently? 14-day quarantine.

"That's a long-standing public health practice, and it's called 'traveler's quarantine,' " explains Lindsay Wiley, a professor at American University's Washington College of Law. "Fourteen days is not a made-up number here — it's based on what we know so far about COVID-19, and it's possible that over time we'll see that number change as we learn more [about the virus]."

The 14-day rule is widespread because public health agencies around the world work together on these guidelines. In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sets the quarantine period, and its counterpart organizations do so abroad, all in concert with the World Health Organization.

If you're one of the many people who are being asked to quarantine for a fortnight, you might be asking: Why 14 days, exactly?

The answer has to do with how viruses invade cells and replicate.

Once a virus infects someone — a host — it takes some time for the virus to make enough copies of itself that the host begins to shed the virus, through coughs or sneezes, for instance. (That's the way the host helps the virus spread to other people — who are then new hosts.) This is the virus' incubation period. For us hosts, it's generally the time between when we're first infected and when we start shedding the virus, which may be a little before we start experiencing symptoms.

"The incubation period varies from virus to virus and sometimes from host to host," says Rachel Graham, a virologist at the University of North Carolina's Gillings School of Global Public Health.

For the virus that causes COVID-19 — its official name is SARS-CoV-2 — researchers have found that the typical incubation period is about five days. About 97% of the people who get infected and develop symptoms will do so within 11 to 12 days, and about 99% will within 14 days.

Canadian border agents are handing people entering Canada a sheet from the Public Health Agency of Canada that instructs them to self-quarantine for 14 days and monitor themselves for any symptoms that might signal COVID-19. Selena Simmons-Duffin/NPR sembunyikan kapsyen

So that 14-day quarantine is being considered the outside "safety" margin, Graham says, to be certain you haven't developed an infection that you could spread to others.

With two similar viruses, SARS and MERS, the incubation periods are a little shorter, with most people developing symptoms within 10 days. Those viruses also had a higher proportion of people experiencing more severe symptoms, which made it easier to define the end of the "safety" window.

There's a big open question with the coronavirus that makes these quarantine recommendations trickier than usual: It's not yet clear how common it is for people who are infected but not showing symptoms — at least not yet — to shed the virus. That answer has been particularly tough to nail down in the U.S. because testing for COVID-19 is not yet widespread.

An illustration created at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conveys a likeness of the coronavirus that's behind the current pandemic. CDC sembunyikan kapsyen

An illustration created at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conveys a likeness of the coronavirus that's behind the current pandemic.

"It's still a big black box as to how much asymptomatic spread is contributing to the increased number of cases that we're seeing," Graham says.

And even if you don't develop any coronavirus symptoms during the two-week quarantine period, you're not totally off the hook when it ends, says Saskia Popescu, an infection prevention epidemiologist at the health care system HonorHealth in Phoenix.

It'll be just as important to continue washing your hands frequently, cover your mouth when you cough, avoid touching your face and wipe down doorknobs and other surfaces frequently touched by many people — to help keep yourself and others healthy.

"If you're using hand hygiene, [if] you're still practicing social distancing and all those other infection control measures that are being encouraged right now, you're going to help break that chain of infection," she says. "Once you're past that 14 days, you still want to engage in those practices — it's not a free-for-all."

Fourteen days can feel like a long time to be stuck at home feeling fine. But if someone under quarantine starts to develop symptoms — such as coughing or fever — that quarantine period will be longer. If that happens, Graham says, you should check with your health care provider or your local health department about when it is safe to emerge from home.

"They're probably going to tell you that you're going to have to start that 14-day count all over again, because right now there's not an efficient way to tell the difference between the coronavirus and another viral infection that causes similar symptoms without a test," she says.

"Keep monitoring your symptoms — if they worsen, then you have to take additional steps," such as seeking medical attention if you develop shortness of breath. Assuming your symptoms are mild enough that you can recover at home, you'll continue to be in isolation for the duration of your illness and a few days after you feel well. Your doctor will guide you about when and how to seek a confirmatory test.

It's helpful to understand the rationale behind these quarantine recommendations, says Wiley, because they're likely to be part of the new American reality for many months to come, as virus hot spots move around the country.

"As we start to get a sense for where community transmission levels are high and where they're low — in the areas where it's low, there's going to be a desire to return to some degree of normalcy," Wiley says. Those areas will be protective of their low levels of virus and will want to keep newcomers quarantined until it's safe for them to roam.


Tonton videonya: 3 TANDA MENTAL KAMU LEMAH. Motivasi Merry. Merry Riana (Oktober 2022).